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Thursday, 30 June 2016

Eldis Climate Change and Development Reporter

In this issue: land issues, gender, agriculture, food and water security

Climate change

With a focus across adaptation, mitigation & development, the climate change guide covers agriculture & food security, natural resource management, poverty & vulnerability, governance, health, gender, finance, & low carbon energy.

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Eldis Climate Change and Development Reporter

30 June 2013
Eldis Climate Change Resource Guide: http://www.eldis.org/climate

This is our regular bulletin that highlights recent publications on climate change and development issues.

The documents are available without charge on the web. If you are unable to access any of these materials online and would like to receive a copy of a document as an email attachment, please contact our editor at the email address given below.


In this issue:

 

The implications of land issues for climate resilient informal settlements in Fiji and Papua New Guinea
Authors: D. Mitchell

Produced by: Association of Chartered Certified Accountants, UK (2016)

This research aims to understand the implications of land issues for the climate resilience of informal settlements in Fiji and Papua New Guinea, both of which have more than 80% customary tenure.

Findings from the research are intended to inform people in the land and property sector about existing land issues and the complexity of resettlement in the context of land tenure arrangements, and the issues that need to be addressed in the process of resettlement in order to protect the rights of people in informal settlements, and improve their abilities to adapt to current climate variability and future climate change.


Available online at: http://www.rics.org/Global/Land_Issues_Fiji_PNG_300316_dwl_aa.pdf Back to list
Vulnerability and risk assessment to support implementation of the Uttarakhand action plan on climate change
Produced by: Climate and Development Knowledge Network (2013)

The Climate Knowledge and Development Network supported a Vulnerability and Risk Assessment process in Uttarakhand to provide the Government of Uttarakhand with the evidence base to refine and prioritise the UAPCC.

This was to help facilitate the implementation of the plan. At the same time, an important component of the enabling environment for climate compatible development in the state is the level of ownership and leadership at various levels and in different sectors.

As such an integrated component was to deal with engagement of stakeholders and institutionalizing the UAPCC within the wider policy and decision-making process of the state.


Available online at: http://cdkn.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/ICF-Desk-Review-Report-TAAS0036-3.pdf Back to list
Gender, agriculture and water insecurity
Authors: H. Parker

Produced by: Overseas Development Institute (2016)

El Niño has already had devastating impacts on countries in Africa that primarily rely on agriculture. Drought, loss of livestock and failed harvests push poor households into food stress and result in children being removed from school or families migrating. Policy and programme implementation for water insecurity must consider social norms around gender and other drivers of inequality.

Too often, policies and programmes on agricultural water management are gender blind and don't consider women's unique needs and experiences.

This paper explains how and why improved water management on the farm matters for women and girls, and what can be done to better support opportunities for them, as well as for men and boys, in the face of climate change.

The authors identify three areas where gender-focused programming needs to address the unique vulnerabilities of women to water (in)security: Women are often at the pinch point of water-related tasks in the home and on the farm, with pressure intensifying around seasonal periods of scarcity in many developing countries.

Compared to men, women may have less access to or control of assets that can be used to buffer against the effects of rainfall variability.

Women often have fewer opportunities to pursue off-farm work or migrate to urban areas as a temporary coping strategy for seasonal food and income shortages, or for shortages caused by droughts and floods.


Available online at: http://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/resource-documents/women_and_water_report_web.pdf Back to list
Strengthening the food systems governance evidence base: Supporting commensurability of research through a systematic review of methods
Authors: A. Delaney; P. Tamás

Produced by: Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (2016)

This document is a sytematic review of food systems governance indicators. It was undertaken by the Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research (CGIAR)'s Research Programme on Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).

Its purpose is for archival records and is confined to details of the review method and results, with framing and interpretation and implications of results excluded. It was intended as a response to a lack of commensurability of existing research on food systems governance.

It was proposed to address this knowledge gap through proposing core indicators to be used in future research, which it is hoped will be adopted in a more consolidated second generation of research on food systems governance designed to support subsequent comparison and aggregation of results.

This core set of indicators are to be assembled through a systematic review of literature.


Available online at: https://cgspace.cgiar.org/rest/bitstreams/72747/retrieve Back to list
Equity and inclusion in disaster risk reduction: building resilience for all
Authors: E. Lovell; V. le Masson

Produced by: Climate and Development Knowledge Network (2016)

Policy-makers and international agencies negotiated the details of the successor to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA), to be agreed at Sendai, Japan in March 2015. The zero draft of the post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction (DRR) now explicitly promotes the integration of gender, age, disability and cultural perspectives into DRR. It acknowledges the need to manage differential levels of vulnerability and exposure, and the need to empower vulnerable groups to participate in decision-making and implementation. The draft does not say, however, how progress on social and cultural dimensions (including poverty, gender, age, and disability) will be promoted and accounted for, or by whom. Our recent analysis of the pre-zero and zero drafts highlights that they are still lacking language and requirements that would help create/enforce stronger accountability for action on social inclusion and adequate attention to social vulnerability (including within the monitoring process). This analysis acknowledges the necessary contributions of different social groups, but is still not clear what and who will ensure that states allow, promote and build upon the participation of these groups in policy-making processes pertaining to DRR. Questions therefore remain about whether the shortcomings of the HFA will be overcome, particularly in relation to the integration of gender perspectives, social and cultural diversity, and community participation as cross-cutting themes.

This paper attempts to address some of these shortcomings and to move the debate beyond the simplistic focus of including vulnerable groups within DRR policy-making. By promoting socio-economic and cultural inclusion as well as the political recognition of marginalised people, this paper provides examples of where their participation as active agents of change has proven beneficial in effectively and equitably building resilience. This evidence supports recommendations for the inclusion and empowerment of vulnerable groups throughout the post-2015 framework for DRR.

This paper also makes the case for increased attention to the wider issues of vulnerability, inclusion and empowerment. Attention to these issues is needed to assist policy-makers and international agencies to negotiate the successor agreement to the HFA. In this respect, this paper will focus on four main aspects:

  • marginalised groups are more likely to suffer from disasters
  • disasters exacerbate vulnerabilities and social inequalities
  • vulnerable groups tend to be excluded from DRR decision-making, thus making them even more
    vulnerable to the impacts of disasters
  • vulnerable groups should be included in DRR as active agents of change to effectively and equitably
    build resilience

Available online at: http://cdkn.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/CDKN-Equity-and-inclusion-in-disaster-risk-reduction-building-resilience-for-all.pdf Back to list

 

 


See our Climate Change Resource Guide for a complete list of new additions.

You are welcome to re-use material from this bulletin on your own website but please acknowledge Eldis as the source and include a link to the Eldis website (either to our home page or to the home page of one of our Resource Guides). Eldis data is available under a creative commons license and made it accessible via an Open API for others to re-use. In addition we have developed a number of plug-ins and modules for website content management systems such as WordPress, Joomla and Drupal to make it easier for website managers and bloggers to integrate Eldis content into their sites. See http://www.eldis.org/go/get-the-data for more information

If you only have email access to the Internet, we can send you a copy of a document as an email attachment.

If you would like to change your subscription or receive this bulletin (or any other of our subject focused email bulletins) regularly, you can register from our home page, or just email to the address below.

You can also receive this update as an RSS Newsfeed. Visit our page at: http://www.eldis.org/go/subscribe


The Eldis Climate Change Resource Guide is funded by the Climate Development Knowledge Network (CDKN). CDKN aims to help decision-makers in developing countries design and deliver climate compatible development. For more information, please go to: http://www.cdkn.org

The views expressed in this newsletter and on the Eldis website are the opinion of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of Eldis, IDS or its funders.


Contact details:

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Tuesday, 28 June 2016

[conserveafrica] Weekly update: Brazil has three crises, Global refugees at record high, Atlas mapping for oceans, and more

 

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Friday, 24 June 2016

Eldis Climate Change and Development Reporter

In this issue: Water services, resilience and the SDGs...

Climate change

With a focus across adaptation, mitigation & development, the climate change guide covers agriculture & food security, natural resource management, poverty & vulnerability, governance, health, gender, finance, & low carbon energy.

HOME LATEST NEWS TOPICS COUNTRY PROFILES JOBS CONTACT

Eldis Climate Change and Development Reporter

24 June 2016
Eldis Climate Change Resource Guide: http://www.eldis.org/climate

This is our regular bulletin that highlights recent publications on climate change and development issues.

The documents are available without charge on the web. If you are unable to access any of these materials online and would like to receive a copy of a document as an email attachment, please contact our editor at the email address given below.


In this issue:

 

 


 

Leave no country behind: a regional look at performance on selected MDGs and SDGs
Authors: A. Lynch

Produced by: Overseas Development Institute (2016)

Knowing which regions and countries are lagging according to which indicators is an indispensable precursor to better targeting by governments and development partners. Moreover, recognition of how starting points matter is crucial for policy to focus on implementing the SDG call for country specificity alongside its embrace of the leave no one behind agenda

In Asia-Pacific, Africa and Latin America, countries that have been reported as off-track in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have in fact done better than expected given their starting points.

Across all regions countries have particularly performed well on indicators that include reduction of maternal mortality, increases in secondary enrolment and access to cooking fuel and electricity. However under-performance on indicators varies depending on the regional context.

While Asia-Pacific has under-performed expectations on the use of modern energy services; for Latin America and the Caribbean, particular deficits are undernutrition and electricity; and for Africa they are sanitation and the maternal mortality ratio. Knowing which regions and countries are lagging according to which indicators is invaluable to better targeting by governments and development partners.


Available online at: http://www.odi.org/publications/10369-leave-no-country-behind-regional-look-performance-selected-mdgs-and-sdgs?utm_source=ODI_Update&utm_medium=feed Back to list
The cost of irrigation water in the Jordan Valley
Authors: C. van den Berg

Produced by: World Bank Institute, World Bank (2016)

The purpose of this study was to determine the financial cost of irrigation water in the Jordan Valley and the corresponding impact of higher water prices on farming. The analysis shows that JVA needs significant tariff increases to be able to attain a more financially sustainable footing. In case JVA wants to at least cover its operating and maintenance costs in 2013, it will require JD 0.108 per m3 - assuming that the current cross-subsidies and current inefficiency levels remain unchanged. Yet, if the JVA would be able to reduce its billing and collection inefficiencies, the required irrigation water tariff drops to JD 0.066 per m3.

The more efficient JVA becomes in providing irrigation water, the smaller the required tariff increases. The JVA can improve its efficiency by (i) changing billing and collection practices; (ii) change in the revenue policies; and (iii) efficiency gains in the delivery of JVA services.

The impact of tariff increases on farmers' incomes is in general very moderate because water costs make up only a small part of the total cost of farming. Certain cropping patterns will be much more affected by the tariff increases than others. It is especially crops that tend to consume large volumes of water (citrus), that will feel the impact of the irrigation water tariffs. Because the agricultural sector in Jordan is under stress, any government policy to rationalize irrigation water subsidies should where possible try to increase the resilience of farmers.

The farmer survey found that 17 percent of the survey respondents could be classified as poor for which specific measures may be needed to help them cope with the effect of higher water prices.


Available online at: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/23997 Back to list
Delivering universal and sustainable water services : Partnering with the private sector
Authors: I. Menzies

Produced by: UNDP - World Bank Water and Sanitation Program (2016)

A dedicated goal for water has recently been endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly as part of the sustainable development goal (SDG) framework. This study provides an assessment of the global costs of meeting the WASH-related targets of Goal #6. The targets assessed include achieving universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all (target 6.1), achieving access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all, and ending open defecation (target 6.2).

The estimates include 140 countries, or 85% of the world's population, focusing on developing countries. Costs estimated cover those of capital investment, program delivery, operations, and major capital maintenance. Three main findings are as follows:

1. Extending basic WASH services to the unserved costs US$ 28.5 billion per year from 2015 to 2030, or 0.10% of global product. This financing requirement is equivalent, in orders of magnitude, to the 0.12% global capital spending to serve the unserved with improved water supply and sanitation during the MDG period. However, in some regions significantly more than 0.10% additional GDP needs to be spent on basic WASH services to achieve universal access.

2. The capital investments required to achieve targets 6.1 and 6.2 amounts to $ 112 billion annually or about three times current investment levels (0.38% of global product).

3. Sustained universal coverage requires more than capital inflows: financial and institutional strengthening will be needed to ensure capital investments translate into effective service delivery. It is critical to consider the ongoing finances required to ensure the proper operations of these services.

Due to the many uncertainties in underlying data and also methodological choices, the cost estimates reported in this study should be used with caution. For national policy making and resource allocation, countries are encouraged to conduct their own costing studies or investment plans


Available online at: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/23998/K8693.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y Back to list
Resilience scan October-December 2015: a review of literature, debates and social media activity on resilience
Authors: A. Bahadur

Produced by: Overseas Development Institute (2016)

This Q4 2015 review is a scan considers resilience in the context of the international frameworks on disasters, sustainable development and climate change in 2015, culminating in the climate change COP21 Paris Agreement of December 2015. In Paris, although mitigation of greenhouse gases took top billing, adaptation was defined for the first time as a global goal.

Text on adaptation also provided normative guidance for action around the world, including strong participation, transparency of action and the use of local, traditional and indigenous knowledge.


Available online at: http://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/resource-documents/resilience_scan_2015-q4-digitalcompressed.pdf Back to list
Emerging trends in mainstreaming climate resilience in large scale, multi-sector infrastructure PPPs
Authors: S. Sundararajan

Produced by: World Bank Institute, World Bank (2016)

This report presents a synthesis of insights on climate risks to infrastructure and on how to implement public-private partnership (PPPs) for infrastructure, building on interviews with experts from multilateral development banks, analysis of national policy frameworks for PPPs and adaptation, and a literature review, to identify where these topics do and should overlap.

There is increasing need for decision makers involved in the public investment process including that of PPPs to both understand how climate change risks could affect their investments and how to mitigate those risks through financial instruments. The paper aims to engage PPP practitioners as well as governments and their advisors in a broader discussion on how a paradigm shift in thinking will be needed in the way Infrastructure PPPs are planned, developed, procured and implemented.


Available online at: https://library.pppknowledgelab.org/attached_files/documents/2874/original/Mainstreaming_Climate_Resilience.pdf Back to list

 

 


See our Climate Change Resource Guide for a complete list of new additions.

You are welcome to re-use material from this bulletin on your own website but please acknowledge Eldis as the source and include a link to the Eldis website (either to our home page or to the home page of one of our Resource Guides). Eldis data is available under a creative commons license and made it accessible via an Open API for others to re-use. In addition we have developed a number of plug-ins and modules for website content management systems such as WordPress, Joomla and Drupal to make it easier for website managers and bloggers to integrate Eldis content into their sites. See http://www.eldis.org/go/get-the-data for more information

If you only have email access to the Internet, we can send you a copy of a document as an email attachment.

If you would like to change your subscription or receive this bulletin (or any other of our subject focused email bulletins) regularly, you can register from our home page, or just email to the address below.

You can also receive this update as an RSS Newsfeed. Visit our page at: http://www.eldis.org/go/subscribe


The Eldis Climate Change Resource Guide is funded by the Climate Development Knowledge Network (CDKN). CDKN aims to help decision-makers in developing countries design and deliver climate compatible development. For more information, please go to: http://www.cdkn.org

Eldis is funded by UKaid and Irish Aid.

Eldis is one of a family of Knowledge Services at IDS.

The views expressed in this newsletter and on the Eldis website are the opinion of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of Eldis, IDS or its funders.


Eldis Programme
Institute of Development Studies
Sussex Brighton BN1 9RE
UK

Tel: +44 1273 915761
Fax: +44 1273 621202


If you would like to receive information about other services from IDS such as publications, events, training and research, please sign-up here.


Eldis Resource Guides
Agriculture and food Climate change Conflict and security Evidence for Policy and Practice Gender Governance Global health ICTs for development Nutrition Rising Powers
Copyright © 2013 The Institute of Development Studies, All rights reserved.
Our mailing address is: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9RE. UK

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