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Monday, 29 February 2016

[conserveafrica] Weekly update: Seed firms neglecting women farmers, Deadly banana fungus, and more

 

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Seed firms accused of neglecting female farmers

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25/02/16

Seed firms accused of neglecting female farmers

Global companies focus on key cash crops, rather than the easily processed plants women prefer, says report.

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Title: X International Symposium on Banana / ISHS-ProMusa symposium/Agroecological approaches to promote innovative banana production systems

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Saturday, 27 February 2016

[conserveafrica] FW: UNEP CPR briefing on Tuesday, 25 Nov 2014 at 10:00 am (Re-transmitted due to technical error) [4 Attachments]

 
[Attachment(s) from Conserve Africa included below]

 

Dear Colleagues,

Please find attached following briefing notes for your information:

  • Outcomes of the 12th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (6 to 17 October 2014);
  • Outcomes of the 7th meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (29 September to 3 October 2014); and
  • outcomes of the 1st meeting of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Nagoya Protocol (13-17 October 2014), which all took place in Pyeongchang, Republic of Korea.  
  • UNEP Regional Seas Programme

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[conserveafrica] FW: UNEP Addis Ababa Highlights for the months September - October 2014 [1 Attachment]

 
[Attachment(s) from Conserve Africa included below]

 

Dear Colleagues,

Please find attached the UNEP Addis Ababa Highlights for the months of September - October 2014



Previous issues of the Highlights are available at:  
www.unep.org/roa/addis_ababa_site/index.asp

Best Regards,





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Friday, 26 February 2016

Eldis Conflict and Security Reporter

In this issue: Resources on migration - a gender assessment of the refugee and migration crisis in Serbia and fYR Macedonia; protection risks for women and girls in the European refugee and migrant crisis; Global overview 2015: people internally displaced by conflict and violence; Migration as adaptation? A comparative analysis of policy frameworks. Plus education and conflict research - Education and building legitimacy during conflict; and delivering education during conflict.

Conflict and Security

Highlighting research on the the drivers and dynamics of conflict such as ethnicity and competition for natural resources; current approaches to conflict prevention and best practice in the design of security and peacebuilding programmes.

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Eldis Conflict and Security Reporter

26 February 2016
www.eldis.org/go/topics/resource-guides/conflict-and-security

This is our regular bulletin that highlights recent publications on conflict and security issues.

The documents highlighted here are available to download online without charge. If you are unable to access any of these materials online and would like to receive a copy of a document as an email attachment, please contact our editor at the email address given below.


In this issue:

 

  1. Gender assessment of the refugee and migration crisis in Serbia and fYR Macedonia
  2. Iinitial Assessment Report: protection risks for women and girls in the European refugee and migrant crisis
  3. Global overview 2015: people internally displaced by conflict and violence
  4. Migration as adaptation? A comparative analysis of policy frameworks
  5. Education and building legitimacy during conflict
  6. Delivering education during conflict

1. Gender assessment of the refugee and migration crisis in Serbia and fYR Macedonia

Authors: Wolfensohn,G.; Milkovic,A.; Nedeva,M.
Produced by: UN Women (2016)

Over one million men, women, and children travelled to Western Europe to claim asylum in 2015, with many transiting through Turkey, Greece, and the Western Baltics on their way north. Countries such as Serbia and fYR Macedonia, who had not seen a crisis of the like since the Yugoslav wars, had to quickly scale-up their support for refugees with the help of UN agencies and international organisations. To ensure that the particular needs of refugee women and girls were adequately understood and incorporated into the humanitarian response, UN Women conducted a gender assessment of UN, NGO, and governmental efforts in Serbia and fYR Macedonia. The results of that assessment are presented in this report, together with a comprehensive set of recommendations.

The methodology of the assessment consisted of both field research, including in-depth interviews with stakeholders and on-site observations from refugee reception and transit centres, and a literature review, Drawing on this data, the report provides an overview of the refugee and migration crisis in the region, and the risks facing women and girls in particular. The main section of the report then presents the findings of the assessment, outlining the present status of efforts and results, and providing detailed, sector-specific recommendations.

Overall, the assessment identified many positive examples of targeted efforts by government, the UN, and civil society actors to respond to the refugee crisis. These included the systematic use of sex- and age-disaggregated data, the use of mobile protection and specialised health teams, the targeted distribution of non-food items such as dignity kits and suitable clothing, mother- and child-friendly spaces and support, and in some cases the availability of women-only shelter and WASH facilities. However, stakeholders acknowledged the existence of gaps, and this assessment identified a number of shortcomings that could and should be addressed:

  • Registration processes can be improved so as to better identify the specific needs and vulnerabilities of women and children, and more effectively refer migrants on to the relevant protection services.
  • There is a lack of qualitative data, and uncertainty regarding how data is being used in planning and operations.
  • Broader government and UN coordination mechanisms have insufficient foci on gender and GBV.
  • The capacity of front-line actors to identify and respond to vulnerable groups requires involving local services and women's organisations in efforts to improve the humanitarian response.
  • As yet, the following sectors do not have adequate provisions to ensure that migrants can equally access and benefit from services, or have limited or no services targeted specifically at women and girls: protection monitoring, GBV prevention and response, targeted psychological support, women-only spaces, and full-time gynecological services.

In light of these shortcomings, five primary recommendations are put forward in this publication: ensure that all response and contingency plans are in line with international humanitarian and human rights standards; ensure that all responses are evidence-based; strengthen coordinated action on the mainstreaming of gender-responsive programming and advocacy; increase national capacity to effectively respond to the specific needs and protection risks of migrant women and girls; and provide immediate and medium-term priority services, protection, and information in reception and transit centres.

The assessment closes with a look to the near future, highlighting that population movements and border restrictions in the region are both expected to increase. The authors urge the need for a highly adaptive and flexible humanitarian response, one capable of upholding the safety and dignity of women and children no matter how fluid the crisis gets. This necessitates concerted attention by all actors on the specific protection risks faced by women and girls, improving coordinated action on gender and GBV issues, and addressing the gaps identified in this assessment.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=74760

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2. Iinitial Assessment Report: protection risks for women and girls in the European refugee and migrant crisis

Produced by: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2016)

Not since World War II has Europe seen such massive movements of refugees and migrants fleeing from armed conflict, persecution, and pervasive sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). Almost one million people arrived through the Mediterranean between January and November of 2015, the vast majority of which came through Greece, and often via Turkey. Just under half of those arriving had fled from war-torn Syria, enduring a dangerous journey over hundreds of miles, and at constant risk of violence and SGBV. Concerned by the protection risks faced by women and girls, the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR) and others undertook a joint seven-day assessment mission to Greece and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. This report is the result of that mission.

The assessment team visited a number of key sites and refugee camps, both temporary and more long-term, and adopted a qualitative research methodology focused on making direct contact with refugees, as well as key stakeholders involved in their protection. Individual interviews, group interviews, and a focus group session were conducted with refugees, and meetings held with UNHCR, UNFPA, and UNICEF, among others. While the mandate for the mission was to be focused on women and girls, the team observed severe risks for men and boys as well, in particular recruitment into armed groups.

The bulk of the report presents the findings from the initial assessment on women's and girls' protection and responses. The authors profile the population, and examines risks in countries of origin, on migrant routes, and in Greece and Macedonia. In the examination of the two countries, the authors go into more detail about SGBV, access to services and facilities, and reproductive health. Finally, the report discusses the protective responses of the Greek and Macedonian governments, including their capacity, leadership and coordination, and information distribution. The report concludes with a large list of recommendations, grouped according to the stakeholder and sector audiences to which they are addressed:

 

  • Governments and the EU: preserve the human rights and dignity of all refugees and migrants, and ensure that all are free from exploitation and abuse and that they have access to the right of asylum and international protection. Coordination should be strengthened to create an effective streamlined response to the crisis. Monitors should collect sex- and age-disaggregated data, integrate gender-sensitive and risk-aware planning, and develop a standard set of vulnerability criteria. It is vital to have trained healthcare experts both in refugee destinations and along migrant routes, including staff trained in SGBV prevention and response. Information should be accessible in native languages, and guidelines should be implemented to ensure that safe, secure and sanitary necessities and basic services are accessible to all..
  • Humanitarian actors, including civil society organisations (CSOs): greater coordination is required to collect reliable sex- and age-disaggregated data on all aspect of humanitarian programming. Standardise processes to prioritise the most vulnerable, and support gender concerns in all planning. Deploy trained SGBV experts, particularly female staff, to function as field coordinators, together with Arabic and Farsi interpreters. National and local authorities, both in migrant destinations and en-route, must be supported in ensuring comprehensive SGBV prevention, healthcare provision, and legal assistance for all refugees. This must be visible and accessible to all, with information disseminated in native languages, and in culturally appropriate ways.


Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=74731

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3. Global overview 2015: people internally displaced by conflict and violence

Authors: Bilak,A.; Caterina,M.; ,G. Charron
Produced by: Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (2015)

Since the end of the Cold War, changing geopolitical forces and the rise of non-state armed groups (NSAGs) have radically reshaped the nature and scale of the internal displacement of people around the globe. At the end of 2014, armed conflict had caused approximately 33 million people to leave their home and find refuge in a different part of their country. The number of internally displaced people (IDPs) in 2014 increased 15% over the previous year, and represents the largest annual increase ever recorded by the Norwegian Refugee Council's Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC).

 

Drawing on data gathered from national governments, the UN and other international agencies, national and international NGOs, human rights organisations, media reports and IDPs themselves, this report provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date overview of internal displacement around the world. In this year's edition, the IDMC focus on protracted displacement, and the cross-border and regional impacts internal displacement can cause. To this end, this report groups countries into eight regions: the Americas, central Africa, east Africa, west Africa, the Middle East and north Africa, Europe, the Caucasus and central Asia, south Asia, and south-east Asia. In this way, phenomena such as the 'domino-effect' can be highlighted, and the issue can be framed in a way that better reflects its' complex and dynamic nature.

 

The first chapter describes the scale and principal trends, as well as the causes and impacts of displacement worldwide in 2014. Increasing violence in South Sudan, Syria, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Nigeria account for as much as 60% of the annual increase, as huge swaths of peoples seek to escape violence and discrimination, often religious and tribal in nature. In all but Nigeria, more than a million people were displaced in each of the aforementioned countries. The Ukraine and El Salvador were included in the report for the first time, the former due to armed conflict, the latter due to newly available data; together they added almost one million IDPs to the global total. Iraq suffered the most new displacement in 2014, with around 2.2 million IDPs fleeing from Islamic State advances. The country with the most IDPs in total was Syria at 7.6 million people (or 35% of its population).

 

Key trends identified include a significant increase in IDPs across north Africa and the Middle-East, where 3.8 million new IDPs brought the total figure in the region to 11.9 million (31% of IDPs globally). While 90% of this number consists of people in Syria or Iraq, Libya's displaced population grew six-fold. Additionally, 11.4 million IDPs are spread across 22 sub-Saharan African countries, with millions in South Sudan, Somalia, and Nigeria fleeing religious-based NSAGs such as Boko Haram. Figures of IDPs for countries in the Americas remain high but stable, with ongoing protracted displacement in Colombia accounting for the majority of people. New displacement has occurred in Mexico, El Salvador, and Guatemala, often due to drug-related violence. Europe and Asia are also experiencing significant new displacement, which is primarily associated with the conflict in Ukraine, counterinsurgency efforts in Pakistan, and ethnic clashes in India.

 

The report goes on to discuss in greater detail the nature of internal displacement by region, covering figures and causes of displacement, displacement patterns, protection issues, and national and international responses. This chapter also includes seven country spotlights in the context of protracted displacement, highlighting specific challenges related to the issue in each of these countries. Throughout the report, space is given as a platform to hear directly from IDPs themselves, providing a human face and voice to what is a desperate issue.

 

The third chapter takes a closer look at protracted displacement, pinpointing the main barriers to overcoming it, including the absence of a shared and actionable definition of protracted displacement, as well as lack of political will. The report identifies the features and dynamics of protracted displacement worldwide, and acknowledges the strains that displacement can have both on host-countries and neighbouring regions. The issues faced by women in particular in protracted displacement are then examined. Women are especially endangered in such situations; as tensions rise and resources deplete, women can be forced into sex work, and/or suffer increased domestic violence and exploitation. Also discussed are the issues of urban housing, sustainable livelihoods, normative frameworks and durable solutions strategies, and policy advances.

 

Finally, the report highlights concerns about the methodological challenges of gathering figures and information on internal displacement. Data requirements and shortfalls are outlined, as well as ways of assessing and describing the internal displacement more accurately. The risk of 'double-counting', or entirely missing, IDPs in data collection is discussed. There is also an emphasis on the need for reliable, regular, sex-disaggregated data to understand such an ever-changing and dynamic problem.

 



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=74727

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4. Migration as adaptation? A comparative analysis of policy frameworks

Authors: Kelpsaite,L.; Mach,E.
Produced by: International Organization for Migration (2015)

With recent climatic and environmental changes occurring all across the globe, adaptation has been in the front line of development policies.

Although the term 'adaptation' has been used mainly in connection with climate change, it also refers to the whole spectrum of human responses to environmental changes that aim to "avoid harm or exploit beneficial opportunities" (IPCC, 2014a:1758).

[author abstract]



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=74668

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5. Education and building legitimacy during conflict

Authors: Rohwerder,B.
Produced by: Governance and Social Development Resource Centre (2015)

Education in fragile and conflict affected states has begun to attract considerable international attention as a result of security and governance concerns. Consequently the policies and approaches adopted by donors engaging in fragile and conflict affected states emphasise the importance of developing institutions, working with civil society, and addressing inequality; without undermining the legitimacy of the state. Education is viewed as a state responsibility in most contexts and there is general agreement that such provision can promote state legitimacy. This rapid literature review summarises the available evidence of how far support to education has strengthened governance during conflict.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=74645

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6. Delivering education during conflict

Authors: Rohwerder,B.
Produced by: Governance and Social Development Resource Centre (2015)

Education is important for children's wellbeing, development and future prospects, as well as for a country's peace, stability and economic development; and is often a priority for those directly affected.

Despite the challenges of delivering education during active conflict, it is possible, and UN agencies, non-governmental organisations, and donors have supported governments, communities, and local authorities in both government and opposition/rebel controlled areas to do so.

This rapid review summarises available evidence of support to education system resilience and education service delivery during active conflicts, including support provided by parents and communities. Information is provided from case studies of support to education in the West Bank and Gaza, Côte d'Ivoire, Afghanistan, Nepal, and Syria, including in rebel/opposition held areas.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=74641

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