Thursday, 27 October 2016

Eldis Climate Change and Development Reporter

In this issue: The latest additions to the Eldis Climate Change Resource Guide...

Climate change

With a focus across adaptation, mitigation & development, the climate change guide covers agriculture & food security, natural resource management, poverty & vulnerability, governance, health, gender, finance, & low carbon energy.


Eldis Climate Change and Development Reporter

27 October 2016
Eldis Climate Change Resource Guide:

This is our regular bulletin that highlights recent publications on climate change and development issues.

The documents are available without charge on the web. If you are unable to access any of these materials online and would like to receive a copy of a document as an email attachment, please contact our editor at the email address given below.

In this issue:


The challenges of climate change: testing climate smart agricultural solutions for improved food security
Produced by: (2016)

Climate change is likely to have far-reaching consequences for agriculture, natural resources and food security -?? demanding a response that integrates research, development and policy. Because of the disproportionate impact of climate change on the rural poor, priority investments should be directed towards poor agriculture, fish or forest dependent people whose livelihoods are most at risk.

The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) is the Australian Government'??s specialist agricultural research-for-development agency. Funded through the Australian aid program, ACIAR identifies opportunities and brokers partnerships between Australia and developing countries to undertake international agricultural research and capacity building.

ACIAR's research portfolio covers crops, livestock and fisheries, natural resources and forestry, and economics, policy and social sciences. Projects are designed so that new knowledge and innovative practices underpin development in partner countriesâ??, and Australian, agricultural systems.

ACIAR research partnerships have developed more resilient farming systems in many countries of the Indo Pacific region. Both mitigation and adaptation to climate variability and change are important components of this research for development.

This brief highlights the wide range of ACIAR activities addressing climate variability in the Indo-Pacific region through climate smart practices (CSA).

Available online at: Back to list
Climate information and Early Warning Systems communications toolkit
Produced by: United Nations Development Programme (2016)

This toolkit provides National HydroMeteorological Services (NHMS), policy makers, and media and communications for development practitioners with the tools, resources and templates necessary to design and implement an integrated communications strategy.

These communications strategies include the effective issuance and packaging of early warnings as well as the creation of supportive communications products and outreach efforts that will support the long-term sustainability of investments in the climate information and services sector. While this communications toolkit is tailored to the specialized needs and political contexts of sub-Saharan Africa, it can easily be applied to other developing nations.

This toolkit defines goals for the issuance of early warnings, and creation of improved climate information products and supportive communications strategies. These supportive strategies serve to engage actors, build political support, engage the private sector and present a true value proposition to end users. The toolkit explores best practices, defines roles and expands on the tools that are necessary to create an integrated communications strategy. The toolkit continues with a step-by-step outline to create response protocols and issue early warnings, address challenges and opportunities, define messages and stakeholders, package early warning systems, and engage with individual media and other relevant actors. There is a communications strategy template and TORs template that can be used by projects and practitioners to generate integrated communications strategies.

Available online at: Back to list
City resilience toolkit: response to deadly heat waves and preparing for rising temperatures
Produced by: (2016)

One of the world's deadliest heat waves devastated India in May 2015, killing more than 2,300 people. As climate change increases the frequency and severity of heat waves and the associated health risks, vulnerable, poor communities are often the hardest hit. In the face of these climate-fueled weather threats, early warning systems and preparedness plans can be adopted to protect health and lives n communities and increase resilience to rising temperatures.  This toolit contains the following sections with special emphasis on India.
  • Fact Sheet: Increasing Resilience to Extreme Heat Health Risks Across Rapidly Urbanizing India
  • How-to Manual: Steps to Develop a Heat Action Plan based on the Ahmedabad Experience
  • Scientific Journal Abstract: Development and Implementation of South Asia's First Heat-Health Action Plan in Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India)
  • Scaling Up Heat Action Plans in Key Cities and States in India: Lessons from April 2015 Ahmedabad Workshop
  • New York City Knowledge Forum: Sharing International Climate Resilience Experiences from India and the U.S
  • Online Resources

Available online at: Back to list
Health care facility climate change resiliency workshop
Produced by: Pan American Health Organization (2015)

In addition to their primary roles in treating illness and injuries, health care facilities provide a first line of defence in protecting individuals and communities from the impacts of climate change. However, recent events demonstrate that health facilities can be vulnerable to climate hazards through impacts on infrastructures (e.g., buildings, equipment), services and on the health of patients and staff.

The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) collaborated with Health Canada, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), the Canadian Coalition for Green Health Care, the Institut National de Santé Publique Québec (INSPQ) and Synergie Santé Environment to convene international experts for the Health Care Facility Climate Change Resiliency Workshop held in Montréal, Québec, Canada on September 8, 2015. The workshop brought together 33 experts from 8 countries to:

  • share information on existing climate change resiliency tools for health care facilities
  • share examples of tool implementation, best practices for application, challenges encountered and suggestions for effective use
  • discuss opportunities for future collaboration in efforts to enhance health care resiliency to climate change impacts

This report presents the workshop results. It includes summaries of presentations made on climate change health care resiliency tools from different countries and examples of their application. It also captures key recommendations made by workshop participants regarding collaborative actions needed to enhance health care facility resiliency in the Americas. Proposed next steps for PAHO are included at the end of the report.

The report includes case studies of tool development and use in the Americas: Mexico, St. Vincent & the Grenadine, Canada, USA, Colombia, Brazil.


Available online at: Back to list
Vulnerable communities: getting their needs and knowledge into climate policy
Produced by: International Institute for Environment and Development (2016)

Poor and marginalised communities across the global South are hard hit by climate change. Their voices must be heard by policymakers, planners, researchers and donors involved in climate change negotiations and other global processes. Indeed, any deal agreed at the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate  Change (UNFCCC) will need to address vulnerable communities' priorities and value their knowledge if viable national, regional and local adaptation strategies are to be implemented. This briefing highlights six tried and tested strategies for overcoming the barriers to community involvement and for ensuring due emphasis to poor and marginalised people's own adaptation needs and ideas for potential solutions.

Available online at: Back to list
Climate change risk management options for the transportation sector
Produced by: Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo / Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) (2015)

The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region has a long history of coping with natural hazards such as hurricanes, floods, and coastal storm surges. However, climate change is expected to exacerbate the threat of natural hazards and pose new ones. As a result of climate change, average temperatures and sea levels are known to be rising, precipitation patterns might change, and hurricanes could intensify. Many of these changes are already occurring, and are projected to become more severe in the future.

The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) supports a wide-range of projects in the LAC region. Climate change-related risks could adversely affect the financial, economic, environmental, and social performance of current and future IDB investments in the region. This factsheet identifies climate change risks and risk management options that can be incorporated into IDB-investments for the transportation sector.

These climate change risk management measures range widely in scope, scale and time frame. It is anticipated that the user will consider the applicability of these measures and refine based on the project or region of interest. In general, it is recommended that all projects should include disaster preparedness measures, such as measures to issue timely and effective early warnings, evacuation and safety plans, and business continuity plans.

A review of the insurance scheme is also recommended as a means to minimize post disaster losses. For new projects, selecting risk management measures during the feasibility and design phase can help avoid costly retrofits and maximize resilience to climate change impacts throughout the project life

Available online at: Back to list
Economic assessment of the impacts of climate change in Uganda: key results
Produced by: Climate and Development Knowledge Network (2015)

Uganda is already experiencing the impacts of climate variability and associated economic losses. Uganda's First National Development Plan (2010–2015) recognises that climate change will affect most of its key economic sectors and that action on climate change is crucial if the country is to meet its goal to become a competitive, upper middle-income country by 2040 (Vision 2040). The Plan also recognises that, for development to be economically and socially sustainable, climate resilience must be at the heart of policies for growth and development, energy access and security, increased agricultural production, education and health.

Against this backdrop, the Government of Uganda  commissioned the Economic Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change study. Its purpose is to provide the Government with economic evidence on the current and future costs associated with climate variability and predicted climate change, and the necessary adaptation measures for different sectors at both national and local
scales. This evidence is intended to help policy-makers mainstream climate change and resilience into national and sectoral policies and develop the case for investing in adaptation.
Key message:
  • development prospects will only be reached if the impacts of climate change on Uganda are mitigated
  • the impacts of climate change are expected to be felt across all the sectors and local areas studied , to varying degrees
  • the cost of adaptation is high: estimated at around US$406 m over the next five years (2015–2020). On an annual basis, this amounts to about 5% of net official development assistance received and 3.2% of total government revenues (excluding grants)
  • the cost of inaction is 20 times greater than the cost of adaptation: inaction is estimated at between US$3.1 bn and 5.9 bn per year by 2025, which is more than 20 times the proposed adaptation budget
  • the economic case for adaptation is clear: many of the adaptation measures proposed in the study are 'no regrets' investments, in that they are valid even in the absence of climate change
  • considering the co-benefits strengthens the case for adaptation further, for example improved livelihoods, health and access to energy; these represent strong investments in the development of Uganda's future

Available online at: Back to list
The impact of climate change, desertification and land degradation on the development prospects of landlocked developing countries
Produced by: UN Office of the High Representative of the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (2016)

Landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) are disadvantaged in a myriad of ways and they have special needs which require special attention. Challenges such as undiversified economies, vulnerability to climate change and climate variability, land degradation and desertification, among others, are undermining the economic potential of many LLDCs. This has been exacerbated by weak export base of many LLDCs centered on a few primary agricultural and/ or mineral commodities. Further, because of their physical location markedly characterized by lack of access to sea ports, LLDCs are popularly referred to as "??prisoners of geography"?. This leaves most LLDCs at a distinct disadvantage as they cannot compete in international trade markets. Added together, this has created a situation in which LLDCs are among the poorest of the poor. In order to address this specific challenge, the United Nations First International Ministerial Conference of Landlocked and Transit Developing Countries and Development Partners held in Almaty, Kazakhstan, in 2003, adopted the Almaty Programme of Action (APoA) whose central thrust was to: Address the Special Needs of Landlocked Developing Countries within a New Global Framework for Transit Transport Cooperation for Landlocked and Transit Developing Countries.

This comprehensive global partnership programme was intended to address essential transit transport problems and facilitate trade for LLDCs. Under the resolution 66/214 of the United Nations General Assembly, a ten-year review of the Almaty Programme of Action was undertaken in November 2014 to take stock on the performance of LLDCs over the past decade and adopted the Vienna Programme of Action (VPoA). One lesson learnt during the implementation of the APoA is that gains and momentum made by the LLDCs can be subdued unless threats posed by climate change, land degradation and desertification are seriously addressed.

This study, therefore, seeks to draw the attention of the international community, policy makers and development agencies to the severe impact that climate change, desertification and land degradation has on the economies of LLDCs. Despite their huge negative impact on LLDCs, these issues have not received the international attention and priority they deserve. This study seeks to identify LLDC's priority areas on climate change, land degradation and desertification that could be included in their new development agenda. In order to achieve this objective, the study: (a) provides a comprehensive review of the impact of climate change, desertification and land degradation on LLDCs, (b) reviews national, regional and international interventions which have been implemented in LLDCs; (c) identifies best practices, lessons learnt and emerging opportunities and (d) proffers recommendations for inclusion in a new development agenda for LLDCs which will assist them to ameliorate the negative impacts of climate change, desertification and land degradation.

Recommendations on priorities of LLDCs on climate change, desertification, land degradation and drought - what has emerged from this study is that there is an imperative need to give LLDCs special attention in as far as the issues of climate change, land degradation and desertification are concerned. Although these issues have generally attracted considerable attention of the global community, there is no special focus on LLDCs, yet these countries are among the worst affected. Based on this review, a number of lessons, priorities and recommendations are drawn which can help shape further policy debates and concrete future plans of action. It is important to build the resilience of LLDCs to withstand the impact; build their adaptive capacity; and mitigation capacity.

Available online at: Back to list
Economic Assessment of the impacts of climate change in Uganda: National Level Assessment - agricultural sector report
Produced by: Climate and Development Knowledge Network (2015)

The agricultural sector is a fundamental part of the Ugandan economy, employing about 66 percent of the working population in 2009/10 and contributing about 22 percent to total GDP in the year 2012 (UBOS, 2013). Therefore, improving understanding of the nature and potential impacts of climate change on the sector is an essential prerequisite to the assessment and prioritization of adaptation actions.
Climate change can potentially impact agricultural production in a number of ways. In the case of crops this maybe by changing: (i) the area suitable for agriculture, (ii) the length of the growing season, (iii) yield potential, (iv) the frequency and severity of extreme events (in particular droughts and floods) and (v) the incidence of plant diseases. In the case of livestock climate change may affect production through: (i) impacts on the quantity and quality of feed, (ii) increasing heat stress, (iii) changes to and spread of livestock diseases and (iv) changes in water availability.

This report has assessed the potential economic impacts of climate change and finds that, in the  absence of additional measures to adapt to climate change, there will be consequences in three areas: on food crops and livestock, on export crops, and on both of these sectors from extreme events.

Available online at: Back to list



See our Climate Change Resource Guide for a complete list of new additions.

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