Friday, 28 August 2015

Eldis Climate Change and Development Reporter

In this issue: Research focusing on the nexus of oil, conflict, and climate change vulnerability  in Northwest Kenya; International Disaster Response Law (IDRL) in Malawi; climate change and aquatic animal disease;  people displaced by disasters; Fiji renewables readiness assessment; Food and Nutrition in Numbers among others . . .

Climate change

With a focus across adaptation, mitigation & development, the climate change guide covers agriculture & food security, natural resource management, poverty & vulnerability, governance, health, gender, finance, & low carbon energy.


Eldis Climate Change and Development Reporter

28 August 2015
Eldis Climate Change Resource Guide:

This is our regular bulletin that highlights recent publications on climate change and development issues.

The documents are available without charge on the web. If you are unable to access any of these materials online and would like to receive a copy of a document as an email attachment, please contact our editor at the email address given below.

In this issue:

  1. The nexus of oil, conflict, and climate change vulnerability of pastoral communities in Northwest Kenya
  2. International Disaster Response Law (IDRL) in Malawi: A study on legal preparedness for regulatory issues in international disaster response
  3. Climate change and aquatic animal disease
  4. Global estimates 2015: people displaced by disasters
  5. Integrating indigenous, local and modern knowledge for sustainable conservation and management of forest ecosystems in Nepal
  6. Fiji renewables readiness assessment
  7. Climate change impacts on African crop production
  8. Food and Nutrition in Numbers

The nexus of oil, conflict, and climate change vulnerability of pastoral communities in Northwest Kenya

Authors: Schilling,J.; Locham,R.; Weinzierl,T.; Vivekananda,J.; Scheffran,J.
Produced by: Copernicus Publications (2015)

This paper focuses on pastoralism in the country of Turkana in northwest Kenya.

It highlights that an increase in drought frequency associated with global climate change and intensifying violent conflicts between pastoral groups, poses significant challenges for local communities. It points out that significant oil reserves have been discovered in the region which may compound the problem.

The paper aims to analyse how the oil exploration affects the communities' vulnerability to climate change. Secondly, the paper explores the risk of 10 the oil explorations to create new conflicts or aggravate existing ones.

The findings are taken to suggest that the oil exploration increases the community's vulnerability to climate change. Further, the paper argues, unmet community expectations for water, employment and development pose a significant risk for violent conflict between local communities and the operating oil company. Intercommunal conflict over water and 20 land could increase as well.

[Adapted from source]

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International Disaster Response Law (IDRL) in Malawi: A study on legal preparedness for regulatory issues in international disaster response

Produced by: International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2015)

This study assesses the legal preparedness for disasters in Malawi in light of the Guidelines for the Domestic Facilitation and Regulation on International Disaster Relief and Initial Recovery (IDRL Guidelines).

The report highlights that Malawi faces numerous disasters in both rural and urban areas, including floods, earthquakes, fires, epidemics, droughts and landslides. These include diasasters related to climate change and extreme weather events. The focus of this study is to examine the level of preparedness of the Government of Malawi for facilitating and regulating the entry and operation of international actors during disasters that require external support and to provide recommendations on how to strengthen the legal and regulatory framework pertaining to disaster risk management in light of the IDRL Guidelines.

[Adapted from source]

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Climate change and aquatic animal disease

Authors: Mohan,C.
Produced by: The WorldFish Center (2015)

This paper argues that scientists need to better understand the impacts of climate change on aquaculture if we are to meet future seafood demand.

It highlights the risks of increased fish disease as a result of climate change and calls for a mapping of the potential risks and the identification of suitable adaptation and mitigation intervention strategies.

Fish farms in tropical zones, the paper notes, experience higher cumulative mortalities and faster progression of diseases which could be exacerbated by climate change. With the threat of climate change bringing more disease, the paper notes that there is a need to develop stronger biosecurity governance mechanisms to manage risks associated with spread of aquatic animal pathogens.

The paper also highlights increased salinity and seawater intrusion as an issue with recommendations to invest in breeding programs for salinity adaptation. It also recommends a holistic approach which considers all forms of agriculture in order that the most climate smart systems can be recommended.

[Adapted from source]

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Global estimates 2015: people displaced by disasters

Authors: Yonetani,M.
Produced by: Norwegian Refugee Council (2015)

This annual report provides figures and analysis on displacement caused by disasters associated with rapid-onset geophysical and weather-related hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods and storms.

It highlights that in 2014 17.5 million people were forced to flee their homes by disasters brought on by weather-related hazards such as floods and storms, and 1.7 million by geophysical hazards such as earthquakes.

The report points to the man-made factors that drive an overall increasing trend in disaster displacement, like rapid economic development, urbanisation and population growth in hazard prone areas. Climate change is also expected to exacerbate the situation in the future, as severe weather hazards become more frequent and intense. The report argues that these drivers are increasing the number of people becoming displaced, and the risk that their displacement becomes a long-term problem.

[Adapted from source]

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Integrating indigenous, local and modern knowledge for sustainable conservation and management of forest ecosystems in Nepal

Authors: Karki,M.; Adhikari,J.R.
Produced by: ForestryNepal (2015)

This paper reports on the documentation and assessment of different community based traditional and local forest and pasture management practices, drawn from five case examples in five districts of Nepal.

These cases cover aspects including evolution, innovations, and adaptation processes. Using field-based shared learning approaches, the paper explores the challenges and opportunities of integrating, synergising, and complementing indigenous practices with modern scientific knowledge and technologies.

Climate change, as the newest driver of deforestation, forest land degradation in Nepal, has been impacting forest ecosystem by fragmenting habitats, altering species composition, changing growing season, lowering biomass productivity, and increasing risks of fires and floods. The paper highlights that indigenous peoples and local communities have been coping with these changes by using their indigenous local knowledge, skills, and practices (ILKP) and making them more adaptive and resilient.

[Adapted from source]

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Fiji renewables readiness assessment

Authors: Chen,Y.; Gönül,G.; Zieroth,G.
Produced by: International Renewable Energy Agency (2015)

This report focuses on the scaling up of renewable energy in Fiji and identifies key actions to mobilise resources and guidance for fine-tuning future policy.

It argues that scaling up both hydropower and non-hydro renewables would contribute significantly to the development of sustainable, reliable and affordable energy that would support economic growth and enhance energy security, particularly in rural areas.

The report examines the general enabling environment, as well as energy resources and conversion technologies (service-resource pairs have) available in Fiji. It makes a number of recommendations for priority actions. For example that efforts should be focused on creating an enabling environment to attract private sector investment to the renewable energy sector and that key legislation should be reviewed and harmonised in order to improve the legal framework for renewable energy development.

[Adapted from source]

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Climate change impacts on African crop production

Authors: Ramirez-Villegas,J.; Thornton,P.K.
Produced by: Climate Change Agriculture Food Security (2015)

This working paper provides an overview of projected climate change impacts on crop production and suitability across Africa.

The analyses uses a combination of literature review, models and new data analysis. The paper highlights that changes in climates over the last 30 years have already reduced global agricultural production in the range 1-5 per cent per decade globally, with particularly negative effects for tropical cereal crops. In addition, the paper says that there is mounting evidence suggesting that even at low (+2 ºC) levels of warming, agricultural productivity is likely to decline across the globe, particularly in tropical areas.

[Adapted from source]

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Food and Nutrition in Numbers

Produced by: Faostat, FAO (2014)

Overcoming malnutrition in all of its forms – caloric undernourishment, micronutrient deficiencies and obesity – requires a combination of interventions in different areas that guarantee the availability of and access to healthy diets. Among the key areas, interventions are required in food systems, public health systems and the provision of safe water and sanitation. This pocketbook not only focuses on indicators of food security and nutritional outcomes but also on the determinants that contribute to healthy lives.

The document is structured in two sections:

  • Thematic spreads related to food security and nutrition, including detailed food consumption data collected from national household budget surveys,
  • Comprehensive country and regional profiles with indicators categorized by anthropometry, nutritional deficiencies, supplementation, dietary energy supplies, preceded by their "setting".

A number of indicators are used in this document including:

  • Demographic indicators as well as health status indicators based on mortality patterns and the provision of safe water and sanitation.
  • Anthropometryindicators which provide information not only on the prevalence of acute and chronic forms of under-nutrition but also on the prevalence of obesity.
  • :Dietary indicators are based on national food supplies and inform on the overall quality of diets.

The choice of indicators was guided by the following criteria: relevance to health, food security and nutrition, comparability over time, and availability, in particular for low-income countries. But the criteria were relaxed for several indicators given their importance and the lack of available substitutes.

The document notes that by presenting data gaps, it is hoped it will bring about greater efforts to collect the necessary information, because only with timely and reliable data can interventions be designed and targeted towards those in most need. Wherever available, disaggregated data by gender have been provided. Such data are indeed key to mainstreaming gender in policies and programmes

(Adapted from source)

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