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Thursday, 30 April 2015

FW: Eldis Climate Change and Development Reporter

In this issue: Launch of the new introductory guide to Loss and Damage and recent research that focuses on: what climate services do farmers and pastoralists need in Tanzania?; world risk report 2014; national-level corruption risks and mitigation strategies in the implementation of REDD+ in the DRC.
A number of research documents on community-based adaptation have been chosen as a response to the 9th Community-Based Adaptation conference in Nairobi: climate change policy in the MENA region; community-based monitoring, reporting and verification know-how; approaches to integrating community-based adaptation to climate change at city and national scale.

 

Climate change

With a focus across adaptation, mitigation & development, the climate change guide covers agriculture & food security, natural resource management, poverty & vulnerability, governance, health, gender, finance, & low carbon energy.

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Eldis Climate Change and Development Reporter

30 April 2015
Eldis Climate Change Resource Guide: http://www.eldis.org/climate


This is our regular bulletin that highlights recent publications on climate change and development issues.

The documents are available without charge on the web. If you are unable to access any of these materials online and would like to receive a copy of a document as an email attachment, please contact our editor at the email address given below.


In this issue:

  1. Key Issues Guide on Loss and Damage
  2. Loss and Damage, Women and Men: Applying a gender approach to the emerging loss and damage agenda
  3. Loss and Damage to Ecosystem Services
  4. What climate services do farmers and pastoralists need in Tanzania?
  5. World Risk Report 2014
  6. National-level corruption risks and mitigation strategies in the implementation of REDD+ in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: An overview of the current situation
  7. Climate change policy in the MENA region: prospects, challenges, and the implication of market instruments
  8. Community-based Monitoring, Reporting and Verification Know-How: Sharing knowledge from practices
  9. Moving towards inclusive urban adaptation: approaches to integrating community-based adaptation to climate change at city and national scale
  10. Up-scaling finance for community-based adaptation

Key Issues Guide on Loss and Damage

Authors: Andrei, S.
Produced by: Eldis (2015)

Adaptation and mitigation will not be sufficient to prevent all future losses and damages. At this moment it is not clear what these additional costs will be and/or how much of these can be attributed to climate change. Although research on the issue has only started to emerge, there are plenty of lessons to be learnt from the disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) communities. The purpose of this Key Issues Guide, authored by Stephanie Andrei, is to help climate change researchers and development practitioners get a better understanding of the issues and challenges associated with loss and damage, both from the climate negotiations and research perspectives. It will also point to some of the lessons learnt from the DRR and CCA communities and provide links to research from mainly developing countries.



Available online at:
http://bit.ly/LossDamage

Back to list


Loss and Damage, Women and Men: Applying a gender approach to the emerging loss and damage agenda

Authors: Figueres,N., V.
Produced by: Loss and Damage in Vulnerable Countries Initiative (2013)

An increasing number of studies show that, because of varying capacities due to gender inequalities, men and women are affected by, and respond to, climate change in different ways. The authors discuss that therefore there is a need to improve the capacities of vulnerable groups and to take a gender-sensitive approach in activities that address climate change. The paper notes that this has already been recognised as an important guiding principle in the development and implementation of adaption policies and measures (UNFCCC 2011, Preamble, paragraphs 12 and 7).

With the growing recognition that proactive adaptation measures will not alleviate all climate change impacts, gender equality must be considered and mainstreamed, with equal importance to all other aspects of loss and damage. Providing analysis and examples, this discussion paper aims to give guidance on gender considerations that should be included in international discussions on the emerging loss and damage agenda.

[Adpated from the source]



Available online at:
http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=72585

Back to list


A Range of Approaches to Address Loss and Damage from Climate Change Impacts in Bangladesh

Authors: Nishat,A.; Mukherjee,N.; Roberts,E.; Hasemann,A.
Produced by: Loss and Damage in Vulnerable Countries Initiative (2013)

Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change, but has increasingly developed national capacity to address climate change impacts. Climaterelated hazards are expected to increase in frequency and intensity, however, and as such it is now becoming clear that adaptation will not be sufficient to avoid loss and damage caused by the adverse effects of climate change. At the global level the emergence and increasing prominence of loss and damage in the international climate negotiations is a result of the failure of both mitigation and adaptation efforts to minimise the impacts of climate change. While there is no universal definition of climate change it has been described as "impacts on human systems, which are often channelled through the negative impacts of climate change on natural systems" (UNFCCC, 2012a). The authors understand loss and damage to be current or future negative impacts of climate change that cannot be addressed by adaptation efforts. Loss can be thought of as irrecoverable negative impacts while damage can be characterised as those that can be recovered. In 2010, a work programme was created under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to enhance understanding of loss and damage and the possible means to address it. The work programme has had the following three thematic areas: (1) Assessing the risk and current knowledge of loss and damage, (2) Exploring a range of approaches to address loss and damage, including impacts related to extreme weather events and slow onset event (3) Determining the role of the Convention, or the UNFCCC, in enhancing the implementation of approaches to address loss and damage. This technical paper addresses questions relating to thematic area 2. 2.

[Taken from the source]



Available online at:
http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=72468

Back to list


Loss and Damage to Ecosystem Services

Authors: Zommers,Z.; Wrathall,D.; van der Geest,K.
Produced by: United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (2014)

This working paper highlights loss and damage to ecosystems from climate change. The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (2014) indicates that adaptation options for ecosystems may be more limited than for human systems and consequently loss and damage both to ecosystems, and to ecosystem services, may be expected. The paper argues that ecosystem services underpin human livelihoods. It is therefore critical to better assess loss and damage to ecosystem services.

The paper assesses current and expected losses and damages to ecosystem services through a survey of the Working Group II Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change, and a detailed case study of the impact of glacial loss in Peru's Cordillera Blanca. Evidence for changes to services is seen in the different phases of hydrological shift of glacial melt. While the impact of other stressors resulting from human activity on ecosystem services need to be considered, greater focus is needed on the relationships between climate change, loss and damage, ecosystem services and human well-being. Ultimately efforts to protect ecosystem services may help build resilience in human livelihoods and minimize loss and damage.

The paper concludes that loss and damage in ecosystems services is an improved starting point for better understanding the feedbacks between changes in ecosystems and human wellbeing and on possibilities for adaptation. Social, technological and economic factors have the potential to buffer the impact of declining ecosystem services on human well-being. For example, increased use of bed nets could help overcome the impact of decreased natural regulation of malaria vectors due to changes in temperature or rainfall. It could be possible to create highland reservoirs to stabilize the cycle of seasonal runoff in Peru (Bradley et al., 2006). Behavioural adaptation could also take place.

The paper argues that fair and adequate policies should also be implemented to protect water rights, as there is likely to be an increasing reliance on mechanisms to capture and save water. Ultimately, minimizing loss to ecosystem services may provide a cost effective way to minimize loss and damage to human systems. Support for maintenance of ecosystem services should become a central focus of the Warsaw International Mechanism. This would help to reduce risks, build resilience and support human development.

[Adapted from the source]



Available online at:
http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=72467

Back to list


What climate services do farmers and pastoralists need in Tanzania?

Authors: Coulibaly,J.Y.
Produced by: Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (2015)

This report presents final findings from the baseline data collection exercise conducted for Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) Adaptation Programme in Africa. The GFCS programme, having a focus on agriculture, food security, health and disaster risk reduction, is implemented in Tanzania and Malawi. Under the auspices of this GFCS project, the CGIAR research program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) is responsible to support baseline data collection and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) to evaluate climate services for farmers and pastoralists in Tanzania. The purpose of this report is to inform national partners on farmers' current access and needs for climate information services.
Communities of agro-pastoralists and pastoralists interviewed have little access to climate information, which is generally not associated with agricultural advice.

To increase the relevance and communication of climate information in their communities, respondents have recommended training of local extension agents and traditional leaders on the concepts of climate information, having site specific information and using local languages and brochures. The forecasts of greatest interest include start of the rain and expected amount of rainfall over the season. Preferred formats cited by men are radio messages, visits from extension agents while women selected voice message on cell phones and villages communicators. Messengers suggested for radio presenters, local extension agents and village leaders highly recommended by women.

The Adaptation Program in Africa, which targets Tanzania and Malawi, is the first multi-agency initiative to be implemented under GFCS. It is a 3-year project, funded by the Government of Norway, that aims to strengthen capacity both to develop and use climate services and combines cutting-edge science with traditional knowledge.



Available online at:
http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=72587

Back to list


World Risk Report 2014

Authors: Garschagen,M.; Mucke,P.; Schauber,A.
Produced by: United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (2014)

This WorldRiskReport (WRR) consists of an index, a focus on cities and thematic case studies. The index describes the disaster risk for various countries and regions.

The content includes:

1. Urbanization – trends and risk assessment
2. Focus: The city as a risk area
3. The WorldRiskIndex 2014
4. Political challenges and perspectives

 


Available online at:
http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=72572

Back to list


National-level corruption risks and mitigation strategies in the implementation of REDD+ in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: An overview of the current situation

Authors: Assembe-Mvondo,S.
Produced by: Chr. Michelsen Institute, Norway (2015)

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is one of the first REDD+ target countries due its huge forest ecosystem potential. Since 2011, the country has been creating key pieces of legislation as well as implementing REDD+ readiness activities and making pilot investments to mitigate some of the key drivers of deforestation and forest degradation identified in the country. Despite this progress, the country's poor governance climate creates a significant challenge in future progress towards implementing REDD+. Endemic poverty, weak state authority, and widespread corruption characterize the DRC's current political environment. It is within this socioeconomic and political backdrop that the REDD+ mechanism is expected to be implemented in the DRC.

The main objective of this study is to assess national-level corruption risks and possible anticorruption strategies in REDD+ implementation in the DRC, using a combination of desk and field-based research. The findings from this research suggest that four types of corruption have arisen in relation to national-level REDD+ implementation: (1) kickback payments; (2) the politicization of government forestry positions; (3) financial mismanagement by international development cooperation agencies and non-governmental organizations; and (4) non-transparent hiring practices of international consultants. The key recommendation of this paper, based on these findings, is the establishment of an independent agency in the DRC to monitor REDD+ finances and projects. Such an agency could play a strong role in enhancing and enforcing the DRC's legal and institutional framework, enhancing transparency through the publication of license and REDD+ information, providing ethics education, and helping to ensure merit-based employment in REDD+ institutions.



Available online at:
http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=72568

Back to list


Climate change policy in the MENA region: prospects, challenges, and the implication of market instruments

Authors: Babiker,M.H.; Fehaid,M.A.
Produced by: Economic Research Forum, Egypt (2011)

Given its harsh climate and fragile ecosystems, the MENA region is vulnerable to the physical impacts of climate change; yet, given its high dependency on hydrocarbon resources, the region is also vulnerable to the impacts of climate change response measures. This paper addresses some crucial aspects in relation to climate change policy and its impacts in the MENA.

The paper highlights the rising energy/carbon intensities in the region, the impacts of climate change response measures, the mitigation potentials in the region, and the suitability of market based instrument to harness these potentials. Consequently, it uses a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modeling to investigate the impacts of response measures and to explore the suitability of market-based instruments to harness mitigation potentials in the MENA.

As a result, the main policy insights drawn from the analysis are that:

  • the role of incentives to promote energy efficiency and reduce carbon emissions in the region
  • the potential gains from actively participating in the international carbon markets through the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
  • the contribution of climate policy to air quality
  • the role of green tax reforms and other sweeteners to improve the welfare economics of pursuing domestic carbon policies in the MENA



Available online at:
http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=72489

Back to list


Community-based Monitoring, Reporting and Verification Know-How: Sharing knowledge from practices

Authors: Pacha,M.J.
Produced by: WWF-World Wide Fund For Nature (2015)

Community-based monitoring, reporting and verification (CMRV), is the involvement of local people in the monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon stocks and other forest data. This approach to forest monitoring can potentially provide cost-effective and locally collected biomass data, promote equality in benefit sharing, and maximize the social and environmental co-benefits of work around reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation, known as REDD+.

In August 2014, participants from more than a dozen countries came together for a workshop in Guyana to share and test tools, approaches, and lessons learned on this work. The workshop was organized by Naikoa Aguilar-Amuchastegui, MRV Coordinator for the WWF Forest and Climate Programme, along with collaborators at WWF Guianas, the Global Canopy Programme, and the U.S. Geological Survey SilvaCarbon Program.

This report highlights the impacts, challenges, lessons learned and trends that emerged from this workshop, and serves as a resource for others focused on similar efforts.

 

Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=71863

Back to list


Moving towards inclusive urban adaptation: approaches to integrating community-based adaptation to climate change at city and national scale

Produced by: International Centre for Climate Change and Development (2014)

Adaptation to climate change in urban areas presents a complex challenge. Consequently, approaches to urban adaptation should be both multilevel and multidimensional. Community-based adaptation (CBA) presents an opportunity for local-level participation in framing adaptation planning and activities, with wider transformative potential for urban governance.

This paper presents five case studies from cities in the Global South which offer insights into the different scales at which CBA can be mainstreamed in urban contexts, and the various ways in which this is happening. These examples demonstrate five emerging opportunities for mainstreaming urban CBA, which include:

  • using CBA as part of a wider package of approaches;
  • seizing processes of institutional reform as an opportunity to integrate community perspectives
  • institutionalising new actors and approaches as a mechanism for scaling up multi-stakeholder approaches
  • ensuring top-down planning approaches are connected to local dynamics
  • and using participatory research to facilitate local communities in shaping planning processes

The cases also demonstrate that while obstacles to mainstreaming in urban contexts remain, some lessons in addressing these challenges have emerged, and CBA should, therefore, be a part of the toolbox of local and national urban adaptation policy frameworks.



Available online at:
http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70705

Back to list


Up-scaling finance for community-based adaptation

Produced by: International Centre for Climate Change and Development (2014)

While most adaptation actions occur at the local level, there is an absence of commitment at the international level to channel adaptation finance to local communities. Without such a commitment, there is a risk that climate finance will continue to support top-down, centralized activities that may struggle to address the needs of vulnerable communities.

This paper explores ways in which community-based adaptation is presently being mainstreamed through the multilateral funds that are used to channel adaptation finance under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change process, and points to two promising examples that demonstrate this. The first is the Small Grants Programme of the Global Environmental Facility, an established modality through which community organisations can access finance to manage their adaptation needs. The second is the direct access modality of the Adaptation Fund, which devolves decision-making power from multilateral agencies towards the national and local levels. At the country level, experiences from Nepal demonstrate an institutional environment that helps to prioritize the adaptation needs of the most vulnerable. Nepal achieves this by mandating that at least 80% of available finance flows to the community level, and that the implementation of projects is conducted in a bottom-up and inclusive process.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70703

Back to list

 


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Eldis Climate Change and Development Reporter

In this issue: Launch of the new introductory guide to Loss and Damage and recent research that focuses on: what climate services do farmers and pastoralists need in Tanzania?; world risk report 2014; national-level corruption risks and mitigation strategies in the implementation of REDD+ in the DRC.
A number of research documents on community-based adaptation have been chosen as a response to the 9th Community-Based Adaptation conference in Nairobi: climate change policy in the MENA region; community-based monitoring, reporting and verification know-how; approaches to integrating community-based adaptation to climate change at city and national scale.


Climate change

With a focus across adaptation, mitigation & development, the climate change guide covers agriculture & food security, natural resource management, poverty & vulnerability, governance, health, gender, finance, & low carbon energy.

HOME LATEST NEWS TOPICS COUNTRY PROFILES JOBS CONTACT

Eldis Climate Change and Development Reporter

30 April 2015
Eldis Climate Change Resource Guide: http://www.eldis.org/climate

This is our regular bulletin that highlights recent publications on climate change and development issues.

The documents are available without charge on the web. If you are unable to access any of these materials online and would like to receive a copy of a document as an email attachment, please contact our editor at the email address given below.


In this issue:

  1. Key Issues Guide on Loss and Damage
  2. Loss and Damage, Women and Men: Applying a gender approach to the emerging loss and damage agenda
  3. Loss and Damage to Ecosystem Services
  4. What climate services do farmers and pastoralists need in Tanzania?
  5. World Risk Report 2014
  6. National-level corruption risks and mitigation strategies in the implementation of REDD+ in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: An overview of the current situation
  7. Climate change policy in the MENA region: prospects, challenges, and the implication of market instruments
  8. Community-based Monitoring, Reporting and Verification Know-How: Sharing knowledge from practices
  9. Moving towards inclusive urban adaptation: approaches to integrating community-based adaptation to climate change at city and national scale
  10. Up-scaling finance for community-based adaptation

Key Issues Guide on Loss and Damage

Authors: Andrei, S.
Produced by: Eldis (2015)

Adaptation and mitigation will not be sufficient to prevent all future losses and damages. At this moment it is not clear what these additional costs will be and/or how much of these can be attributed to climate change. Although research on the issue has only started to emerge, there are plenty of lessons to be learnt from the disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) communities. The purpose of this Key Issues Guide, authored by Stephanie Andrei, is to help climate change researchers and development practitioners get a better understanding of the issues and challenges associated with loss and damage, both from the climate negotiations and research perspectives. It will also point to some of the lessons learnt from the DRR and CCA communities and provide links to research from mainly developing countries.



Available online at: http://bit.ly/LossDamage

Back to list

Loss and Damage, Women and Men: Applying a gender approach to the emerging loss and damage agenda

Authors: Figueres,N., V.
Produced by: Loss and Damage in Vulnerable Countries Initiative (2013)

An increasing number of studies show that, because of varying capacities due to gender inequalities, men and women are affected by, and respond to, climate change in different ways. The authors discuss that therefore there is a need to improve the capacities of vulnerable groups and to take a gender-sensitive approach in activities that address climate change. The paper notes that this has already been recognised as an important guiding principle in the development and implementation of adaption policies and measures (UNFCCC 2011, Preamble, paragraphs 12 and 7).

With the growing recognition that proactive adaptation measures will not alleviate all climate change impacts, gender equality must be considered and mainstreamed, with equal importance to all other aspects of loss and damage. Providing analysis and examples, this discussion paper aims to give guidance on gender considerations that should be included in international discussions on the emerging loss and damage agenda.

[Adpated from the source]



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=72585

Back to list

A Range of Approaches to Address Loss and Damage from Climate Change Impacts in Bangladesh

Authors: Nishat,A.; Mukherjee,N.; Roberts,E.; Hasemann,A.
Produced by: Loss and Damage in Vulnerable Countries Initiative (2013)

Bangladesh is one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change, but has increasingly developed national capacity to address climate change impacts. Climate‐related hazards are expected to increase in frequency and intensity, however, and as such it is now becoming clear that adaptation will not be sufficient to avoid loss and damage caused by the adverse effects of climate change. At the global level the emergence and increasing prominence of loss and damage in the international climate negotiations is a result of the failure of both mitigation and adaptation efforts to minimise the impacts of climate change. While there is no universal definition of climate change it has been described as "impacts on human systems, which are often channelled through the negative impacts of climate change on natural systems" (UNFCCC, 2012a). The authors understand loss and damage to be current or future negative impacts of climate change that cannot be addressed by adaptation efforts. Loss can be thought of as irrecoverable negative impacts while damage can be characterised as those that can be recovered. In 2010, a work programme was created under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to enhance understanding of loss and damage and the possible means to address it. The work programme has had the following three thematic areas: (1) Assessing the risk and current knowledge of loss and damage, (2) Exploring a range of approaches to address loss and damage, including impacts related to extreme weather events and slow onset event (3) Determining the role of the Convention, or the UNFCCC, in enhancing the implementation of approaches to address loss and damage. This technical paper addresses questions relating to thematic area 2. 2.

[Taken from the source]



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=72468

Back to list

Loss and Damage to Ecosystem Services

Authors: Zommers,Z.; Wrathall,D.; van der Geest,K.
Produced by: United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (2014)

This working paper highlights loss and damage to ecosystems from climate change. The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (2014) indicates that adaptation options for ecosystems may be more limited than for human systems and consequently loss and damage both to ecosystems, and to ecosystem services, may be expected. The paper argues that ecosystem services underpin human livelihoods. It is therefore critical to better assess loss and damage to ecosystem services.

The paper assesses current and expected losses and damages to ecosystem services through a survey of the Working Group II Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change, and a detailed case study of the impact of glacial loss in Peru's Cordillera Blanca. Evidence for changes to services is seen in the different phases of hydrological shift of glacial melt. While the impact of other stressors resulting from human activity on ecosystem services need to be considered, greater focus is needed on the relationships between climate change, loss and damage, ecosystem services and human well-being. Ultimately efforts to protect ecosystem services may help build resilience in human livelihoods and minimize loss and damage.

The paper concludes that loss and damage in ecosystems services is an improved starting point for better understanding the feedbacks between changes in ecosystems and human wellbeing and on possibilities for adaptation. Social, technological and economic factors have the potential to buffer the impact of declining ecosystem services on human well-being. For example, increased use of bed nets could help overcome the impact of decreased natural regulation of malaria vectors due to changes in temperature or rainfall. It could be possible to create highland reservoirs to stabilize the cycle of seasonal runoff in Peru (Bradley et al., 2006). Behavioural adaptation could also take place.

The paper argues that fair and adequate policies should also be implemented to protect water rights, as there is likely to be an increasing reliance on mechanisms to capture and save water. Ultimately, minimizing loss to ecosystem services may provide a cost effective way to minimize loss and damage to human systems. Support for maintenance of ecosystem services should become a central focus of the Warsaw International Mechanism. This would help to reduce risks, build resilience and support human development.

[Adapted from the source]



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=72467

Back to list

What climate services do farmers and pastoralists need in Tanzania?

Authors: Coulibaly,J.Y.
Produced by: Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (2015)

This report presents final findings from the baseline data collection exercise conducted for Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) Adaptation Programme in Africa. The GFCS programme, having a focus on agriculture, food security, health and disaster risk reduction, is implemented in Tanzania and Malawi. Under the auspices of this GFCS project, the CGIAR research program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) is responsible to support baseline data collection and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) to evaluate climate services for farmers and pastoralists in Tanzania. The purpose of this report is to inform national partners on farmers' current access and needs for climate information services.
Communities of agro-pastoralists and pastoralists interviewed have little access to climate information, which is generally not associated with agricultural advice.

To increase the relevance and communication of climate information in their communities, respondents have recommended training of local extension agents and traditional leaders on the concepts of climate information, having site specific information and using local languages and brochures. The forecasts of greatest interest include start of the rain and expected amount of rainfall over the season. Preferred formats cited by men are radio messages, visits from extension agents while women selected voice message on cell phones and villages communicators. Messengers suggested for radio presenters, local extension agents and village leaders highly recommended by women.

The Adaptation Program in Africa, which targets Tanzania and Malawi, is the first multi-agency initiative to be implemented under GFCS. It is a 3-year project, funded by the Government of Norway, that aims to strengthen capacity both to develop and use climate services and combines cutting-edge science with traditional knowledge.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=72587

Back to list

World Risk Report 2014

Authors: Garschagen,M.; Mucke,P.; Schauber,A.
Produced by: United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (2014)

This WorldRiskReport (WRR) consists of an index, a focus on cities and thematic case studies. The index describes the disaster risk for various countries and regions.

The content includes:

1. Urbanization – trends and risk assessment
2. Focus: The city as a risk area
3. The WorldRiskIndex 2014
4. Political challenges and perspectives

 


Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=72572

Back to list

National-level corruption risks and mitigation strategies in the implementation of REDD+ in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: An overview of the current situation

Authors: Assembe-Mvondo,S.
Produced by: Chr. Michelsen Institute, Norway (2015)

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is one of the first REDD+ target countries due its huge forest ecosystem potential. Since 2011, the country has been creating key pieces of legislation as well as implementing REDD+ readiness activities and making pilot investments to mitigate some of the key drivers of deforestation and forest degradation identified in the country. Despite this progress, the country's poor governance climate creates a significant challenge in future progress towards implementing REDD+. Endemic poverty, weak state authority, and widespread corruption characterize the DRC's current political environment. It is within this socioeconomic and political backdrop that the REDD+ mechanism is expected to be implemented in the DRC.

The main objective of this study is to assess national-level corruption risks and possible anticorruption strategies in REDD+ implementation in the DRC, using a combination of desk and field-based research. The findings from this research suggest that four types of corruption have arisen in relation to national-level REDD+ implementation: (1) kickback payments; (2) the politicization of government forestry positions; (3) financial mismanagement by international development cooperation agencies and non-governmental organizations; and (4) non-transparent hiring practices of international consultants. The key recommendation of this paper, based on these findings, is the establishment of an independent agency in the DRC to monitor REDD+ finances and projects. Such an agency could play a strong role in enhancing and enforcing the DRC's legal and institutional framework, enhancing transparency through the publication of license and REDD+ information, providing ethics education, and helping to ensure merit-based employment in REDD+ institutions.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=72568

Back to list

Climate change policy in the MENA region: prospects, challenges, and the implication of market instruments

Authors: Babiker,M.H.; Fehaid,M.A.
Produced by: Economic Research Forum, Egypt (2011)

Given its harsh climate and fragile ecosystems, the MENA region is vulnerable to the physical impacts of climate change; yet, given its high dependency on hydrocarbon resources, the region is also vulnerable to the impacts of climate change response measures. This paper addresses some crucial aspects in relation to climate change policy and its impacts in the MENA.

The paper highlights the rising energy/carbon intensities in the region, the impacts of climate change response measures, the mitigation potentials in the region, and the suitability of market based instrument to harness these potentials. Consequently, it uses a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modeling to investigate the impacts of response measures and to explore the suitability of market-based instruments to harness mitigation potentials in the MENA.

As a result, the main policy insights drawn from the analysis are that:

  • the role of incentives to promote energy efficiency and reduce carbon emissions in the region
  • the potential gains from actively participating in the international carbon markets through the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
  • the contribution of climate policy to air quality
  • the role of green tax reforms and other sweeteners to improve the welfare economics of pursuing domestic carbon policies in the MENA


Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=72489

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Community-based Monitoring, Reporting and Verification Know-How: Sharing knowledge from practices

Authors: Pacha,M.J.
Produced by: WWF-World Wide Fund For Nature (2015)

Community-based monitoring, reporting and verification (CMRV), is the involvement of local people in the monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon stocks and other forest data. This approach to forest monitoring can potentially provide cost-effective and locally collected biomass data, promote equality in benefit sharing, and maximize the social and environmental co-benefits of work around reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation, known as REDD+.

In August 2014, participants from more than a dozen countries came together for a workshop in Guyana to share and test tools, approaches, and lessons learned on this work. The workshop was organized by Naikoa Aguilar-Amuchastegui, MRV Coordinator for the WWF Forest and Climate Programme, along with collaborators at WWF Guianas, the Global Canopy Programme, and the U.S. Geological Survey SilvaCarbon Program.

This report highlights the impacts, challenges, lessons learned and trends that emerged from this workshop, and serves as a resource for others focused on similar efforts.

 

Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=71863

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Moving towards inclusive urban adaptation: approaches to integrating community-based adaptation to climate change at city and national scale

Produced by: International Centre for Climate Change and Development (2014)

Adaptation to climate change in urban areas presents a complex challenge. Consequently, approaches to urban adaptation should be both multilevel and multidimensional. Community-based adaptation (CBA) presents an opportunity for local-level participation in framing adaptation planning and activities, with wider transformative potential for urban governance.

This paper presents five case studies from cities in the Global South which offer insights into the different scales at which CBA can be mainstreamed in urban contexts, and the various ways in which this is happening. These examples demonstrate five emerging opportunities for mainstreaming urban CBA, which include:

  • using CBA as part of a wider package of approaches;
  • seizing processes of institutional reform as an opportunity to integrate community perspectives
  • institutionalising new actors and approaches as a mechanism for scaling up multi-stakeholder approaches
  • ensuring top-down planning approaches are connected to local dynamics
  • and using participatory research to facilitate local communities in shaping planning processes

The cases also demonstrate that while obstacles to mainstreaming in urban contexts remain, some lessons in addressing these challenges have emerged, and CBA should, therefore, be a part of the toolbox of local and national urban adaptation policy frameworks.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70705

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Up-scaling finance for community-based adaptation

Produced by: International Centre for Climate Change and Development (2014)

While most adaptation actions occur at the local level, there is an absence of commitment at the international level to channel adaptation finance to local communities. Without such a commitment, there is a risk that climate finance will continue to support top-down, centralized activities that may struggle to address the needs of vulnerable communities.

This paper explores ways in which community-based adaptation is presently being mainstreamed through the multilateral funds that are used to channel adaptation finance under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change process, and points to two promising examples that demonstrate this. The first is the Small Grants Programme of the Global Environmental Facility, an established modality through which community organisations can access finance to manage their adaptation needs. The second is the direct access modality of the Adaptation Fund, which devolves decision-making power from multilateral agencies towards the national and local levels. At the country level, experiences from Nepal demonstrate an institutional environment that helps to prioritize the adaptation needs of the most vulnerable. Nepal achieves this by mandating that at least 80% of available finance flows to the community level, and that the implementation of projects is conducted in a bottom-up and inclusive process.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70703

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