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Friday, 30 January 2015

Eldis Climate Change and Development Reporter

 

In this issue: Research that focuses on taking stock of the UNFCCC process; framing an integrated landscape approach for overcoming chronic food insecurity; adapting to climate change for sustainable agribusiness in high mountain watersheds with a focus on Nepal; action for a just, gender-equitable and sustainable future; case book of REDD + subnational initiatives across the globe; impact of carbon taxes on growth emissions and welfare in India; and more . . .

 

Climate change

With a focus across adaptation, mitigation & development, the climate change guide covers agriculture & food security, natural resource management, poverty & vulnerability, governance, health, gender, finance, & low carbon energy.

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Eldis Climate Change and Development Reporter

30 January 2015
Eldis Climate Change Resource Guide: http://www.eldis.org/climate


This is our regular bulletin that highlights recent publications on climate change and development issues.

The documents are available without charge on the web. If you are unable to access any of these materials online and would like to receive a copy of a document as an email attachment, please contact our editor at the email address given below.


In this issue:

  1. Taking stock of the UNFCCC process and its inter-linkages
  2. Managing for resilience: framing an integrated landscape approach for overcoming chronic food insecurity
  3. Compendium of lessons learned from ARCC climate change vulnerability assessments
  4. Adapting to climate change for sustainable agribusiness in high mountain watersheds: a case study from Nepal
  5. 2015 and beyond: Action for a just, gender-equitable and sustainable future
  6. REDD+ on the ground: A case book of subnational initiatives across the globe
  7. Setting, measuring and monitoring targets for reducing disaster risk: Recommendations for post-2015 international policy frameworks
  8. The impact of carbon taxes on growth emissions and welfare in India: A CGE analysis

Taking stock of the UNFCCC process and its inter-linkages

Authors: Briner,G.; Kato,T.; Konrad,S.; Hood,C.
Produced by: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2014)


The aim of this paper is to take stock of existing United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) institutions and arrangements and the interlinkages between them in the areas of mitigation, adaptation, means of implementation, and measurement, reporting and verification (MRV), with a view to informing discussions under the ADP on the possible elements of a 2015 agreement. The paper argues that a pragmatic approach to the post-2020 international climate regime would focus on using existing institutions and arrangements more effectively before creating new ones and that the 2015 agreement could focus on maximising the potential of established institutions and reviewing their effectiveness over time, where possible, rather than setting up new institutions.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70287

Back to list


Managing for resilience: framing an integrated landscape approach for overcoming chronic food insecurity

Authors: Buck,L.E.; Bailey,I.D.


This paper presents an integrated landscape and resilience management framework to tackle chronic food insecurity and vulnerable livelihoods.

Climate change and fluctuating global markets represent grave risks to agriculture and agrarian-based livelihoods, as well as significantly increasing food insecurity. Overcoming these challenges requires a broad and integrated approach, an approach explored by this paper published by Landscapes for People, Food, and Nature.

The paper presents an integrated landscape and resilience management framework designed around four inter-connected landscape dimensions - agroecosystem, livelihood, ecosystem, and institutions - that are critical for achieving livelihood and food security, as well as ecological resilience. The framework is geared towards a broad audience of practitioners, including those working in rural development, food aid and relief, agriculture, policy, and conservation, amongst others.

Following an introduction to the topic, the paper outlines the who, what, and where of vulnerability and global food insecurity, before exploring the strategies and practices of integrated, resilient landscape-scale management.

The authors argue that considerable programmatic effort must be geared towards strengthening livelihoods in marginalized communities in order to enhance food security, and that livelihood and food security initiatives must promote social and ecological resilience in the face of increasing climatic and economic stresses.

The final two sections comprise of highlights and lessons from practitioner experience, and the mainstreaming of landscape-level resilience building. Several recommendations for organisations to accelerate the process of mainstreaming integrated landscape management are drawn from case studies, including:

  • Stay abreast of technologies and mechanisms that rural communities can use to adapt to climate change and disaster risk.
  • Strengthen your organisations role as a 'learning laboratory', and invest in the documentation and dissemination of lessons learned.
  • Look out for innovations that spread spontaneously; this is often a good sign that something is effective.
  • Invest in leaders, and explore opportunities for syngergistic partnerships with other organisations.

 



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70286

Back to list


Compendium of lessons learned from ARCC climate change vulnerability assessments

Authors: Wood,L.
Produced by: US Agency for International Development (2014)


This report draws on experience gained through preparing assessments in the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Malawi, Senegal, and Uganda. It is intended that the lessons compiled in this report constitute a reference tool that can be used by assessment designers to define the scope of a climate change vulnerability assessment (CCVA) and by key decision makers to introduce climate change adaptation into new or existing policies and programs. It argues that, before considering how to adapt to climate change, it is first necessary to understand the extent to which natural and human systems will be affected by various change scenarios.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70281

Back to list


Adapting to climate change for sustainable agribusiness in high mountain watersheds: a case study from Nepal

Authors: Kotru,R.; Choudhary,D.; Fleiner,R.
Produced by: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, (ICIMOD), Nepal (2014)


This publication reflects the findings and learning from a programme of participatory action research (PAR) carried out between 2010 and 2012 in two geographically and climatically different mountain watersheds in the districts of Mustang and Jumla in Nepal. The HIMALI PAR project aimed to identify climate change adaptation priorities and provide input to the design of effective local watershed management plans to ensure the sustainability of agribusiness for the local communities. The learning from the project is intended to support the development of climate change adaptation strategies for sustainable, socially equitable, and gender-responsive livelihood development that can be replicated and included in the HIMALI investment project and other similar initiatives.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70279

Back to list


2015 and beyond: Action for a just, gender-equitable and sustainable future

Authors: Otzelberger,A.; Harmeling,S.
Produced by: CARE International (2014)


This briefing paper argues that gender inequality is one of the most widespread and persistent barriers to social justice and that climate change amplifies the risks faced by people who are already poor and marginalised, with widespread negative consequences primarily for women and girls, and for society as a whole. It argues that social inequality and climate change not only reinforce each other, but have common roots – in various forms of domination by powerful elites and in a development model which can put human rights and the environment second and economic growth first. It argues that 2015 is a key moment for governments to change course towards more equitable sustainable government as they seek to agree three major international policy frameworks with long-term implications reaching at least into 2030. These include the post-2015 sustainable development framework, a future UN climate change agreement, and the post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70278

Back to list


REDD+ on the ground: A case book of subnational initiatives across the globe

Authors: O Sills,E.; Atmadja,S.S.; de Sassi,C.
Produced by: Center for International Forestry Research (2014)


This casebook presents 23 case studies of sub-national REDD+ initiatives from around the world.

As one of the leading near-term options for global climate change mitigation, REDD+ has been piloted in over 300 sub-national initiatives across the tropics. Published by the Center for International Forestry Research, this comprehensive casebook of sub-national REDD+ initiatives presents a number of case studies, complete with extensive empirical analysis, from all around the world.

For each of the initiatives, the report outlines the context; explains their strategies; describes smallholders living in and around the intervention areas; and highlights key challenges and lessons learned. The information was collected through a household survey at 17 sites, and interviews with key informants and village meetings at all 23 sites. In total, there are six case studies from each of Brazil and Indonesia, five in Tanzania, two in each of Peru and Cameroon, and one from Vietnam.

The report suggests that while a binding agreement may be reached on climate change in Paris in December 2015, it is crucial to forge ahead as soon as possible with these challenge-specific actions:

  • Finances: the case studies show that there is an urgent need, at the micro-level, to cover costs of avoided smallholder forestland conversion, although the report makes no conclusions as to the best approach to use.
  • Tenure: this will be a key component of preparations for forest-based climate change mitigation, with areas requiring attention including forest tenure reform, institutionalisation of participatory mapping in national land-use decision making, resolution mechanisms, a review of planned industrial concessions, and clarification of rights to forest carbon.
  • Scale: climate change mitigation actions must be embedded in state laws, regulations, protocols, practices and other institutions of the state to ensure continuous stability.
  • Measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV): it is necessary to raise MRV capacity in countries where it is deficient so as to both maximise the scope of REDD+, and also for reasons of equity.
  • Social safeguards: attention to social safeguards must be increased and accelerated, and allocated sufficient funding.

 The report concludes that the evidence presented indicates that it is still unclear whether REDD+ on the ground can play a meaningful role in safeguarding the function of tropical forests, and that future success rests on an upsurge in financial support, collective action, and political will around the world.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70365

Back to list


Setting, measuring and monitoring targets for reducing disaster risk: Recommendations for post-2015 international policy frameworks

Authors: Mitchell,T.; Guha-Sapir,D.; Hall,J.
Produced by: Overseas Development Institute (2014)


Based on disaster risk data sets and further evidence from recent history, this report highlights what this agreed approach could look like, what the challenges may be, and offers ten proposals for this global monitoring framework on disaster risk reduction (DRR). The report argues that, with disaster risk continuing to increase in many regions, action is needed to reverse the trend. It argues that creating a unified approach to three upcoming policy frameworks – the post-2015 agreement on disaster risk reduction (DRR); the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and an international agreement on climate change – is the only way to ensure disaster risk reduction (DRR) is given high priority. The report recommends that a common target and indicator set to measure and monitor disaster risks and losses should be agreed on and implemented.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70361

Back to list


The impact of carbon taxes on growth emissions and welfare in India: A CGE analysis

Authors: Pradhan,B.K.; Ghosh,J.
Produced by: Institute of Economic Growth, India (2012)


There is growing concern around the world about the impact of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the environment and economy. Primarily responsible for global warming, GHG emissions (especially CO2 emissions) are closely linked to the consumption (burning) of fossil fuels.

Countries have not been able to de-link the association between the use of fossil fuels and economic growth until now.

Scientific evidence points to increasing risks of serious, irreversible impacts of climate change (global warming) associated with business-as-usual (BAU) paths for emissions. There is an urgent need to bring down the level of emissions to scientifically acceptable levels considering the fact that costs associated with climate change are significantly higher than the costs of mitigation.

This paper analyses the impact of two post-Kyoto climate policy regimes on GDP growth, CO2 emissions, and welfare in India. Both regimes aim to limit the long-term average global temperature increase below 2°C. The first policy regime is a global carbon tax. The second policy regime is based on emission trading permits; their distribution is based on the Common but Differentiated Convergence approach. The study uses a recursive dynamic CGE model that incorporates features of the energy system for the analysis.

The results suggest that long-term significant reductions in CO2 emissions can be achieved under the two policy regimes and at moderate cost to the economy. The maximum loss in GDP occurs during 2045–50. The growth rate falls from 4.3 per cent in the business-as-usual scenario to 3.2 per cent in the carbon tax scenario and 3 per cent in the Common but Differentiated Convergence scenario. In other periods, the decline in GDP growth rate is not more than 0.3 percentage points. The maximum welfare loss in terms of equivalent variation is estimated at 6.4 per cent in the carbon tax scenario and 5.2 per cent in the Common but Differentiated Convergence scenario in 2050.

From the results the paper also concludes that climate policies could influence the country's trade balance, and that the degree of influence depends on the exchange rate regime.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70432

Back to list

 


See our Climate Change Resource Guide for a complete list of new additions.

You are welcome to re-use material from this bulletin on your own website but please acknowledge Eldis as the source and include a link to the Eldis website (either to our home page or to the home page of one of our Resource Guides). Eldis data is available under a creative commons license and made it accessible via an Open API for others to re-use. In addition we have developed a number of plug-ins and modules for website content management systems such as WordPress, Joomla and Drupal to make it easier for website managers and bloggers to integrate Eldis content into their sites. See http://www.eldis.org/go/get-the-data for more information

If you only have email access to the Internet, we can send you a copy of a document as an email attachment.

If you would like to change your subscription or receive this bulletin (or any other of our subject focused email bulletins) regularly, you can register from our home page, or just email to the address below.

You can also receive this update as an RSS Newsfeed. Visit our page at: http://www.eldis.org/go/subscribe


The Eldis Climate Change Resource Guide is funded by the Climate Development Knowledge Network (CDKN). CDKN aims to help decision-makers in developing countries design and deliver climate compatible development. For more information, please go to: http://www.cdkn.org

Eldis is funded by UKaid and Irish Aid.

Eldis is one of a family of Knowledge Services at IDS.

The views expressed in this newsletter and on the Eldis website are the opinion of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of Eldis, IDS or its funders.


Contact details:
Fatema Rajabali
Eldis Programme
Institute of Development Studies
Sussex Brighton BN1 9RE
UK

Email:f.rajabali@ids.ac.uk
Tel: +44 1273 915761+44 1273 915761
Fax: +44 1273 621202
WWW: http://www.eldis.org/climatechange


If you would like to receive information about other Knowledge Services and publications from IDS, please email your name, contact details and subject interests to us at knowledgeservices@ids.ac.uk


Eldis Resource Guides

Agriculture and food Climate change Conflict and security Gender Governance HIV and AIDS Health Health systems ICTs for development Rising Powers

 

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Copyright © 2013 The Institute of Development Studies, All rights reserved.
Our mailing address is: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9RE. UK

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Eldis Climate Change and Development Reporter

In this issue: Research that focuses on taking stock of the UNFCCC process; framing an integrated landscape approach for overcoming chronic food insecurity; adapting to climate change for sustainable agribusiness in high mountain watersheds with a focus on Nepal; action for a just, gender-equitable and sustainable future; case book of REDD + subnational initiatives across the globe; impact of carbon taxes on growth emissions and welfare in India; and more . . .

Climate change

With a focus across adaptation, mitigation & development, the climate change guide covers agriculture & food security, natural resource management, poverty & vulnerability, governance, health, gender, finance, & low carbon energy.

HOME LATEST NEWS TOPICS COUNTRY PROFILES JOBS CONTACT

Eldis Climate Change and Development Reporter

30 January 2015
Eldis Climate Change Resource Guide: http://www.eldis.org/climate

This is our regular bulletin that highlights recent publications on climate change and development issues.

The documents are available without charge on the web. If you are unable to access any of these materials online and would like to receive a copy of a document as an email attachment, please contact our editor at the email address given below.


In this issue:

  1. Taking stock of the UNFCCC process and its inter-linkages
  2. Managing for resilience: framing an integrated landscape approach for overcoming chronic food insecurity
  3. Compendium of lessons learned from ARCC climate change vulnerability assessments
  4. Adapting to climate change for sustainable agribusiness in high mountain watersheds: a case study from Nepal
  5. 2015 and beyond: Action for a just, gender-equitable and sustainable future
  6. REDD+ on the ground: A case book of subnational initiatives across the globe
  7. Setting, measuring and monitoring targets for reducing disaster risk: Recommendations for post-2015 international policy frameworks
  8. The impact of carbon taxes on growth emissions and welfare in India: A CGE analysis

Taking stock of the UNFCCC process and its inter-linkages

Authors: Briner,G.; Kato,T.; Konrad,S.; Hood,C.
Produced by: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2014)

The aim of this paper is to take stock of existing United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) institutions and arrangements and the interlinkages between them in the areas of mitigation, adaptation, means of implementation, and measurement, reporting and verification (MRV), with a view to informing discussions under the ADP on the possible elements of a 2015 agreement. The paper argues that a pragmatic approach to the post-2020 international climate regime would focus on using existing institutions and arrangements more effectively before creating new ones and that the 2015 agreement could focus on maximising the potential of established institutions and reviewing their effectiveness over time, where possible, rather than setting up new institutions.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70287

Back to list

Managing for resilience: framing an integrated landscape approach for overcoming chronic food insecurity

Authors: Buck,L.E.; Bailey,I.D.

This paper presents an integrated landscape and resilience management framework to tackle chronic food insecurity and vulnerable livelihoods.

Climate change and fluctuating global markets represent grave risks to agriculture and agrarian-based livelihoods, as well as significantly increasing food insecurity. Overcoming these challenges requires a broad and integrated approach, an approach explored by this paper published by Landscapes for People, Food, and Nature.

The paper presents an integrated landscape and resilience management framework designed around four inter-connected landscape dimensions - agroecosystem, livelihood, ecosystem, and institutions - that are critical for achieving livelihood and food security, as well as ecological resilience. The framework is geared towards a broad audience of practitioners, including those working in rural development, food aid and relief, agriculture, policy, and conservation, amongst others.

Following an introduction to the topic, the paper outlines the who, what, and where of vulnerability and global food insecurity, before exploring the strategies and practices of integrated, resilient landscape-scale management.

The authors argue that considerable programmatic effort must be geared towards strengthening livelihoods in marginalized communities in order to enhance food security, and that livelihood and food security initiatives must promote social and ecological resilience in the face of increasing climatic and economic stresses.

The final two sections comprise of highlights and lessons from practitioner experience, and the mainstreaming of landscape-level resilience building. Several recommendations for organisations to accelerate the process of mainstreaming integrated landscape management are drawn from case studies, including:

  • Stay abreast of technologies and mechanisms that rural communities can use to adapt to climate change and disaster risk.
  • Strengthen your organisations role as a 'learning laboratory', and invest in the documentation and dissemination of lessons learned.
  • Look out for innovations that spread spontaneously; this is often a good sign that something is effective.
  • Invest in leaders, and explore opportunities for syngergistic partnerships with other organisations.

 



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70286

Back to list

Compendium of lessons learned from ARCC climate change vulnerability assessments

Authors: Wood,L.
Produced by: US Agency for International Development (2014)

This report draws on experience gained through preparing assessments in the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Malawi, Senegal, and Uganda. It is intended that the lessons compiled in this report constitute a reference tool that can be used by assessment designers to define the scope of a climate change vulnerability assessment (CCVA) and by key decision makers to introduce climate change adaptation into new or existing policies and programs. It argues that, before considering how to adapt to climate change, it is first necessary to understand the extent to which natural and human systems will be affected by various change scenarios.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70281

Back to list

Adapting to climate change for sustainable agribusiness in high mountain watersheds: a case study from Nepal

Authors: Kotru,R.; Choudhary,D.; Fleiner,R.
Produced by: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, (ICIMOD), Nepal (2014)

This publication reflects the findings and learning from a programme of participatory action research (PAR) carried out between 2010 and 2012 in two geographically and climatically different mountain watersheds in the districts of Mustang and Jumla in Nepal. The HIMALI PAR project aimed to identify climate change adaptation priorities and provide input to the design of effective local watershed management plans to ensure the sustainability of agribusiness for the local communities. The learning from the project is intended to support the development of climate change adaptation strategies for sustainable, socially equitable, and gender-responsive livelihood development that can be replicated and included in the HIMALI investment project and other similar initiatives.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70279

Back to list

2015 and beyond: Action for a just, gender-equitable and sustainable future

Authors: Otzelberger,A.; Harmeling,S.
Produced by: CARE International (2014)

This briefing paper argues that gender inequality is one of the most widespread and persistent barriers to social justice and that climate change amplifies the risks faced by people who are already poor and marginalised, with widespread negative consequences primarily for women and girls, and for society as a whole. It argues that social inequality and climate change not only reinforce each other, but have common roots – in various forms of domination by powerful elites and in a development model which can put human rights and the environment second and economic growth first. It argues that 2015 is a key moment for governments to change course towards more equitable sustainable government as they seek to agree three major international policy frameworks with long-term implications reaching at least into 2030. These include the post-2015 sustainable development framework, a future UN climate change agreement, and the post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70278

Back to list

REDD+ on the ground: A case book of subnational initiatives across the globe

Authors: O Sills,E.; Atmadja,S.S.; de Sassi,C.
Produced by: Center for International Forestry Research (2014)

This casebook presents 23 case studies of sub-national REDD+ initiatives from around the world.

As one of the leading near-term options for global climate change mitigation, REDD+ has been piloted in over 300 sub-national initiatives across the tropics. Published by the Center for International Forestry Research, this comprehensive casebook of sub-national REDD+ initiatives presents a number of case studies, complete with extensive empirical analysis, from all around the world.

For each of the initiatives, the report outlines the context; explains their strategies; describes smallholders living in and around the intervention areas; and highlights key challenges and lessons learned. The information was collected through a household survey at 17 sites, and interviews with key informants and village meetings at all 23 sites. In total, there are six case studies from each of Brazil and Indonesia, five in Tanzania, two in each of Peru and Cameroon, and one from Vietnam.

The report suggests that while a binding agreement may be reached on climate change in Paris in December 2015, it is crucial to forge ahead as soon as possible with these challenge-specific actions:

  • Finances: the case studies show that there is an urgent need, at the micro-level, to cover costs of avoided smallholder forestland conversion, although the report makes no conclusions as to the best approach to use.
  • Tenure: this will be a key component of preparations for forest-based climate change mitigation, with areas requiring attention including forest tenure reform, institutionalisation of participatory mapping in national land-use decision making, resolution mechanisms, a review of planned industrial concessions, and clarification of rights to forest carbon.
  • Scale: climate change mitigation actions must be embedded in state laws, regulations, protocols, practices and other institutions of the state to ensure continuous stability.
  • Measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV): it is necessary to raise MRV capacity in countries where it is deficient so as to both maximise the scope of REDD+, and also for reasons of equity.
  • Social safeguards: attention to social safeguards must be increased and accelerated, and allocated sufficient funding.

 The report concludes that the evidence presented indicates that it is still unclear whether REDD+ on the ground can play a meaningful role in safeguarding the function of tropical forests, and that future success rests on an upsurge in financial support, collective action, and political will around the world.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70365

Back to list

Setting, measuring and monitoring targets for reducing disaster risk: Recommendations for post-2015 international policy frameworks

Authors: Mitchell,T.; Guha-Sapir,D.; Hall,J.
Produced by: Overseas Development Institute (2014)

Based on disaster risk data sets and further evidence from recent history, this report highlights what this agreed approach could look like, what the challenges may be, and offers ten proposals for this global monitoring framework on disaster risk reduction (DRR). The report argues that, with disaster risk continuing to increase in many regions, action is needed to reverse the trend. It argues that creating a unified approach to three upcoming policy frameworks – the post-2015 agreement on disaster risk reduction (DRR); the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and an international agreement on climate change – is the only way to ensure disaster risk reduction (DRR) is given high priority. The report recommends that a common target and indicator set to measure and monitor disaster risks and losses should be agreed on and implemented.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70361

Back to list

The impact of carbon taxes on growth emissions and welfare in India: A CGE analysis

Authors: Pradhan,B.K.; Ghosh,J.
Produced by: Institute of Economic Growth, India (2012)

There is growing concern around the world about the impact of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the environment and economy. Primarily responsible for global warming, GHG emissions (especially CO2 emissions) are closely linked to the consumption (burning) of fossil fuels.

Countries have not been able to de-link the association between the use of fossil fuels and economic growth until now.

Scientific evidence points to increasing risks of serious, irreversible impacts of climate change (global warming) associated with business-as-usual (BAU) paths for emissions. There is an urgent need to bring down the level of emissions to scientifically acceptable levels considering the fact that costs associated with climate change are significantly higher than the costs of mitigation.

This paper analyses the impact of two post-Kyoto climate policy regimes on GDP growth, CO2 emissions, and welfare in India. Both regimes aim to limit the long-term average global temperature increase below 2°C. The first policy regime is a global carbon tax. The second policy regime is based on emission trading permits; their distribution is based on the Common but Differentiated Convergence approach. The study uses a recursive dynamic CGE model that incorporates features of the energy system for the analysis.

The results suggest that long-term significant reductions in CO2 emissions can be achieved under the two policy regimes and at moderate cost to the economy. The maximum loss in GDP occurs during 2045–50. The growth rate falls from 4.3 per cent in the business-as-usual scenario to 3.2 per cent in the carbon tax scenario and 3 per cent in the Common but Differentiated Convergence scenario. In other periods, the decline in GDP growth rate is not more than 0.3 percentage points. The maximum welfare loss in terms of equivalent variation is estimated at 6.4 per cent in the carbon tax scenario and 5.2 per cent in the Common but Differentiated Convergence scenario in 2050.

From the results the paper also concludes that climate policies could influence the country's trade balance, and that the degree of influence depends on the exchange rate regime.



Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70432

Back to list

 


See our Climate Change Resource Guide for a complete list of new additions.

You are welcome to re-use material from this bulletin on your own website but please acknowledge Eldis as the source and include a link to the Eldis website (either to our home page or to the home page of one of our Resource Guides). Eldis data is available under a creative commons license and made it accessible via an Open API for others to re-use. In addition we have developed a number of plug-ins and modules for website content management systems such as WordPress, Joomla and Drupal to make it easier for website managers and bloggers to integrate Eldis content into their sites. See http://www.eldis.org/go/get-the-data for more information

If you only have email access to the Internet, we can send you a copy of a document as an email attachment.

If you would like to change your subscription or receive this bulletin (or any other of our subject focused email bulletins) regularly, you can register from our home page, or just email to the address below.

You can also receive this update as an RSS Newsfeed. Visit our page at: http://www.eldis.org/go/subscribe


The Eldis Climate Change Resource Guide is funded by the Climate Development Knowledge Network (CDKN). CDKN aims to help decision-makers in developing countries design and deliver climate compatible development. For more information, please go to: http://www.cdkn.org

Eldis is funded by UKaid and Irish Aid.

Eldis is one of a family of Knowledge Services at IDS.

The views expressed in this newsletter and on the Eldis website are the opinion of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of Eldis, IDS or its funders.


Contact details:
Fatema Rajabali
Eldis Programme
Institute of Development Studies
Sussex Brighton BN1 9RE
UK

Email:f.rajabali@ids.ac.uk
Tel: +44 1273 915761+44 1273 915761
Fax: +44 1273 621202
WWW:
http://www.eldis.org/climatechange


If you would like to receive information about other Knowledge Services and publications from IDS, please email your name, contact details and subject interests to us at knowledgeservices@ids.ac.uk


Eldis Resource Guides
Agriculture and food Climate change Conflict and security Gender Governance HIV and AIDS Health Health systems ICTs for development Rising Powers
Copyright © 2013 The Institute of Development Studies, All rights reserved.
Our mailing address is: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9RE. UK

RE: Eldis Governance Reporter

 

In this issue: Mainstreaming anti-corruption initiatives: development of a water sector strategy in Mozambique; Assessing the impact of trade reforms on informality in Egypt; Mediating a convoluted conflict: South Africa's approach to the inter-party negotiations in Zimbabwe; Perpetuation of instability in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: When the Kivus sneeze, Kinshasa catches a cold; Measurement matters: designing new metrics for a drug policy that works; Does the African middle class defend democracy?

 

Governance

Highlighting research relating to democratic governance, fragile states, institutional development, justice, good governance, public sector & service delivery and urban governance.

HOME

LATEST NEWS

TOPICS

COUNTRY PROFILES

JOBS

CONTACT

Eldis Governance Reporter

30 January 2015
www.eldis.org/go/topics/resource-guides/governance


This is our regular bulletin that highlights recent publications on governance issues.

The documents highlighted here are available to download online without charge. If you are unable to access any of these materials online and would like to receive a copy of a document as an email attachment, please contact our editor at the email address given below.


In this issue:



  1. Mainstreaming anti-corruption initiatives: development of a water sector strategy in Mozambique
  2. Assessing the impact of trade reforms on informality in Egypt
  3. Mediating a convoluted conflict: South Africa's approach to the inter-party negotiations in Zimbabwe
  4. Perpetuation of instability in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: When the Kivus sneeze, Kinshasa catches a cold
  5. Measurement matters: designing new metrics for a drug policy that works
  6. Does the African middle class defend democracy?

Mainstreaming anti-corruption initiatives: development of a water sector strategy in Mozambique

Authors: Potter,A.; Butterworth,J.
Produced by: U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre (2014)

Sector approaches to combating corruption have gained momentum in recent years, yet the strategic prioritization of sector anti-corruption initiatives is still the exception. The National Water Directorate in Mozambique is one of the few public sector departments in the world known to have allocated its own resources to developing a sector-specific anti-corruption strategy. Its experience offers valuable lessons for others considering integrating anti-corruption in sectors. Leadership needs to come from ministries with intersectoral mandates or through formal collaboration between different ministries. Government-led processes must be complemented by locally driven social accountability processes. Sector strategies need strong political commitment, at sector and central government levels, since multi-stakeholder processes are complex and time-consuming, and the implementation of sector strategies must include sector-level human resources and management systems.

Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70466

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Assessing the impact of trade reforms on informality in Egypt

Authors: Selwaness,I.; Zaki,C.
Produced by: Economic Research Forum, Egypt (2013)

The effect of trade liberalisation on the informal sector has been widely discussed at both empirical and public policy levels but was never tested empirically in Egypt. This paper proposes an empirical investigation of the effect of trade liberalisation on informality in Egypt.

The paper clarifies that there are many claims that trade openness and markets' exposure to foreign competition could widen the wage inequality and increase labour movements towards the informal sector. On the other hand, the Egyptian case is quite interesting since Egypt experienced an increase in both trade openness and informality.

The document finds that trade liberalisation has indeed decreased informality in Egypt, where trade liberalisation actually implies that some firms will find it more profitable to enter the formal sector rather to remain informal. Moreover, the degree of labour market flexibility associated to the labour reform of 2003 is likely to be one of the reasons behind this change.

The author concludes that as the informal sector is an important employer in the Egyptian labour market, new mechanisms have to be implemented to attract the informal sector to the mainstream business community. Identically, the reduction in total cost for the informal employer seems to be a necessity to formalise these workers.

Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70555

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Mediating a convoluted conflict: South Africa's approach to the inter-party negotiations in Zimbabwe

Authors: Mhandara,L.; Pooe,A.
Produced by: African Centre for Constructive Resolution of Disputes (2013)

In the late 1990s, Zimbabwe became trapped in a ditch of multifaceted crises that were pronounced in the contest for political power between the ruling Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) and the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC). This conflict revolved around the legitimacy of electoral processes, related institutions and the credibility of electoral outcomes.

By 2007, the conflict had escalated to the extent that the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and countries neighbouring Zimbabwe decided to mediate between the two parties to end the standoff, which had begun to negatively affect the entire southern Africa region. Thabo Mbeki, former President of South Africa (1999–2008), was then mandated by SADC to facilitate dialogue between the parties. Mediation efforts led to relatively credible harmonised parliamentary and presidential elections held on 29 March 2008. These elections, however, did not come up with a clear winner, forcing the country to call for a run-off. This second round of elections, held on 27 June 2008, was tainted by allegations of electoral flaws and widespread institutionalised violence. The result was a predictable regression into the pre-29 March era, prompting SADC to mandate South Africa to facilitate negotiations for a political solution among the key political players. In the face of varying interests converging on the Zimbabwe situation, South Africa's role became even more difficult.

This paper analyses South Africa's facilitation approach to the inter-party negotiation process in Zimbabwe – from Mbeki's 'quiet diplomacy' to current President Jacob Zuma's assertive stance – amid competing domestic and international interests. The analysis is based on critiques of realities confronting South Africa throughout the process. The paper presents South Africa's facilitation approach as a consequence of four streams: historical experiences, South Africa's post-apartheid foreign policy, African conflict resolution approaches, and a diagnosis of the dynamics of the Zimbabwean conflict.

Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70674

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Perpetuation of instability in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: When the Kivus sneeze, Kinshasa catches a cold

Authors: Muraya,J.; Ahere,J.
Produced by: African Centre for Constructive Resolution of Disputes (2014)

The current instability in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) can be traced back to late former President Mobutu Sese Seko's rule during the late 1980s. The country's economic depression was exacerbated by the end of the Cold War in 1991, leading to disengagement with the international economic and political system. The DRC has been the source of numerous conflicts over many years. The 1990s saw the country's peace and security degenerate further, creating challenges that continue to preoccupy the world today. In recent times, the epicentre of the violence in the DRC has been North and South Kivu (the Kivus). The dynamics in the two provinces are complex, causing the Great Lakes region to be characterised by huge human security challenges.

This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the linkage between the conflicts in the Kivus and persistent periodic instability in the DRC. It delves into and critiques post-crisis recovery efforts implemented in the country since the end of the Second Congo War. The paper concludes that, among other strategies, resolving the various conflicts in the DRC depends on understanding the causes of specific clashes, such as those in the Kivus, as this can contribute to the uncovering of sustainable solutions to armed confrontation. The paper offers proposals which, if implemented, could contribute to moving the Kivus, and by extension the DRC, beyond intractability.

Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70673

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Measurement matters: designing new metrics for a drug policy that works

Authors: Muggah,R.; Aguirre,K.; Szabo de Carvalho,I.
Produced by: Igarape Institute (2015)

Supporters of progressive drug policy are committed to using scientific evidence as the basis for informed public debate and policy-making. This is more radical proposal than it first appears. It requires a fundamental shift in how governments and societies think about monitoring and measuring production, trafficking and consumption. To help advance this thinking, the following Strategic Paper proposes a new set of generic goals, targets and indicators to track the intended and unintended consequences of drug policy. Based on dozens of interviews with the world´s top experts, it offers an innovative framework to align drug policy metrics with improvements in public health, safety and citizen security. The paper introduces 2 high level impacts, 6 goals, 16 targets and 86 indicators and subjects them to a preliminary reality check in Colombia. While there are challenges related to data availability and access, there are also tremendous opportunities to rethink old paradigms and design new approaches to designing, implementing and monitoring drug policy that works.

Findings include:

  • New goals, targets and indicators can help guide governments and civil societies in crafting and implementing a more progressive drug policy agenda. Such an agenda would valorise health and welfare and seek to improve safety and security of citizens.
  • The establishment of metrics for drug policy should proceed cautiously and on the basis of a careful review of the evidence. While global answers are needed in addressing illicit drugs, there are no one-size-fits-all answers and governments should experiment with different approaches suited to regional and national needs.
  • The adoption of a progressive drug policy agenda with associated metrics will not be simple. There are many methodological challenges related to data generation. And the fact that current drug policy related priorities are premised on an outdated model mean that new investments in data collection, interpretation and dissemination will be required. New thinking is needed on how to mobilize political energy, public opinion and scientific investments in the right direction.

[Summary adapted from source]

Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70394

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Does the African middle class defend democracy?

Authors: Cheeseman,N.
Produced by: Afrobarometer (2014)

Barrington Moore's famous line "no bourgeoisie, no democracy" is one of the most quoted claims in political science. But has the rise of the African middle class promoted democratic consolidation? This paper uses the case of Kenya to investigate the attitudes and behaviours of the middle class. Analysis of Afrobarometer survey data reveals that the middle class is more likely to support the opposition and hold pro-democratic attitudes. This suggests Moore's claim holds, at least for some African countries, and that contemporary demographic changes will improve the prospects for democratic consolidation. However, qualitative evidence from the Kenyan 2013 general election raises important questions about the resilience of these attitudes. The middle class may be more inclined to democratic attitudes than their less well-off counterparts, but class continues to intersect with ethnicity, and its political salience is likely to wax and wane as a result.

Findings include:

  • Middle-class Kenyans are more likely to support democracy. By contrast, with the exception of the Somali community, ethnicity has little effect.
  • Employment status, wealth, and education were all significant predictors of support for democracy. Lived poverty was not relevant for either dependent variable. This highlights the central role that education plays in creating more critical citizens who are more deeply infused with democratic spirit.
  • The "class effect" does not kick in at lower income levels but rather takes hold when individuals have a degree of financial breathing space.

[Summary adapted from source]

Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=70809

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