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Friday, 28 November 2014

Fwd: Eldis Gender Reporter: Women, peace and security – review of resolution 1325




In this issue: Women, peace and security – review of resolution 1325

Gender

Highlighting research on the role of gender equality issues in achieving development goals. Focusing on issues such as gender mainstreaming, measuring change, legal and policy frameworks on gender and human rights, and successful initiatives from the field.

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Eldis Gender Reporter

26 November 2014
www.eldis.org/go/topics/resource-guides/gender

This is our regular bulletin that highlights recent publications on gender equality issues.

The documents highlighted here are available to download online without charge. If you are unable to access any of these materials online and would like to receive a copy of a document as an email attachment, please contact our editor at the email address given below.


In this issue:

 
The UN reaffirmed the importance of women's empowerment for global peace and security at this year's annual review of resolution 1325, on October 28. The Report of the Secretary-General on women and peace and security highlights that there have been some significant achievements in 2013 including:
Ms. Mlambo-Ngcuka, executive director of UN Women, emphasised that there have been significant advancements in recognising the importance of the issue as there are now over 80 countries committed to the women, peace and security agenda. Also the percentage of peace agreements committing to advancing the security and status of women and girls has more than doubled since 2011 (UN news centre 2014).

However, Ms. Mlambo-Ngcuka highlighted that although women's participation in peace negotiations has improved, almost half of peace agreements don't mention women's rights and needs, and 97 percent of peacekeepers remain to be men (UN Security Council). Generally the implementation of resolution 1325 remains to be difficult in the context of armed conflict. She expressed concern for how current and long-term conflicts, such as in Iraq, Nigeria, Syria, Afghanistan, Somalia and Mali, are affecting women: women and girls are exposed to targeted attacks and human rights abuses; and they constitute a high percentage of displaced people worldwide, which is now higher than at any time since the Second World War. In addition, 'During and after conflict, more women die during childbirth, and more girls are forcibly married. Fewer women work and participate in the economy and [fewer] girls go to school. Of primary school age children that are out of school, half live in conflict areas. Only 35 percent of girls are enrolled in secondary education in these settings […]' (UN news centre 2014).

To ensure progress in the implementation of resolution 1325 (2000), a high-level review will take place next year and the Security Council emphasised the need to define a significant implementation shift for the resolution, for it to be effective. The Secretary-General was requested to ensure gender expertise is accessible to all UN mediation teams, supporting the appointment of women as senior mediators (UN Security Council 2013). Member States are encouraged to start reviewing the implementation of their national action plans and to engage in a critical reflection of new targets for the 2015 review (UN Security Council 2014).
  1. Women in peace and security through United Nations Security Resolution 1325: literature review, content analysis of National Action Plans, and implementation
  2. Complex realities and astute actors: Sudanese women's activism and UN Security Council Resolution 1325
  3. Ten-year Impact Study on Implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) on Women, Peace and Security in Peacekeeping
  4. Global Monitoring Checklist on Women Peace and Security: Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nepal, Northern Ireland and Sri Lanka.
  5. Tracking Implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000)
  6. Gender and Militarism

Women in peace and security through United Nations Security Resolution 1325: literature review, content analysis of National Action Plans, and implementation
Authors: Miller,B.; Pournik,M.; Swaine,A.
Produced by: Institute for Global and International Studies (2014)

The complex challenges and opportunities of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda, as enunciated in United National Security Council Resolution 1325 of 2000, and several subsequent resolutions, lend themselves to both a "cup half full" and a "cup half empty" interpretation. The very phrase, the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda (WPS), is itself a sign of progress among professionals working on global gender policy and programs around the world, as it is increasingly accepted as an important mandate across a wide variety of institutions, both public and private. On the downside, the WPS agenda is clearly not a household term (widely known outside activist and policy circles), nor is its foundational policy, United Nations Security Resolution 1325 (UNSCR 1325).

This Working Paper looks at the Women, Peace and Security agenda as laid out in UNSCR 1325 and in six following Security Council Resolutions - UNSCR 1820, 1888, 1889, 1960, 2106 and 2122 - to assess progress in the past decade and a half since the adoption of UNSCR 1325 in 2000. The Paper is based on an extensive desk study of the existing literature on UNSCR 1325, and a detailed content analysis of 40 of the 42 existing 1325 NAPs, providing an update on implementation of Women, Peace, and Security goals more broadly.

The Working Paper addresses three main questions:
  • What does the social science and related literature say about UNSCR 1325 since its adoption in 2000?
  • What does content analysis of National Action Plans (NAPs) in support of UNSCR 1325 reveal about the effectiveness of such plans?
  • What are examples of implementation of 1325 principles with and beyond 1325 NAPs?

[Summary adapted from author]

Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=69717
 


Complex realities and astute actors: Sudanese women's activism and UN Security Council Resolution 1325
Authors: Tønnessen,L.
Produced by: Norwegian Peacebuilding Centre (2014)

Sudanese women activists do not use United Nations (UN) Security Council Resolution 1325 to claim rights. During my eight years of engagement with women's activist from diverse backgrounds in the country I have hardly heard the resolution mentioned, except in the context of the Darfur conflict. It is understood narrowly by local actors to pertain to protection against gender-based violence, specifically sexual violence. In a Sudanese context, where the sitting president is facing an arrest order from the International Criminal Court for the systematic use of sexual violence in the Darfur conflict, needless to say the resolution is politicised and considered too "sensitive" to be dealt with. Nine years after the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement that ended Africa's longest running civil war, no national strategy exists in Sudan to implement Resolution 1325, because "there is no political will" to do so.

Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=68207

Ten-year Impact Study on Implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) on Women, Peace and Security in Peacekeeping

This report from 2010 reviews a decade of implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the first resolution to address the specific impacts of conflict on women and call for women's engagement in peace processes. The report shows a mixed record on the overall contribution of UN peacekeeping to the implementation of the resolution.

A key message within the report is that greater action is needed by United Nations peacekeeping missions - working with local women, national authorities and UN Member States - to increase the limited participation of women in peace negotiations, national security institutions and governance in post-conflict situations. According to the report, peacekeeping has played a crucial role in the significant progress made in women's participation in politics - as voters, candidates and elected officials. The most marked difference in political representation of women has come in countries where quotas are in place, such as Timor-Leste and Burundi. Peacekeeping missions have influenced legal and judicial reforms by supporting the adoption of gender equality laws in several countries, including the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Sierra Leone. Deployments of patrols in high-risk areas in the Darfur region of Sudan and the DRC have also enhanced protection of women.

The study also recommends:
  • A more robust response should be employed to fight against conflict-related sexual violence, which remains highly prevalent in peacekeeping mission areas.
  • The UN should devote more resources to the protection of women internally-displaced persons and refugees, with the support of international partners.
  • Understanding of and support for gender equality by senior peacekeeping personnel is variable, and senior management should be held to a higher level of accountability for compliance with resolution 1325 and peacekeeping gender policy.
Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=69746

Global Monitoring Checklist on Women Peace and Security: Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nepal, Northern Ireland and Sri Lanka.

The Global Monitoring Checklist is a pilot research project designed to contribute towards international understanding on women, peace and security efforts. It highlights relevant activities at the local and national level by women, civil society, national governments and the international community. It is not a comprehensive survey of all initiatives relating to women, peace and security; rather, it is a first step in gathering and collating information that links directly to UNSCR 1325 implementation. In support of work already carried out by women's organisations, governments and multilateral agencies, this checklist provides country-specific information that identifies achievements, good practice and obstacles to the implementation of UNSCR 1325. It has been compiled in order to monitor progress in advancing the women, peace and security agenda in five conflict-affected regions: Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nepal, Northern Ireland and Sri Lanka.

The overall aims of the project are to:
  • contribute towards a deeper understanding of the substantive issues covered in the resolution;
  • to provide practical information to assist a variety of stakeholders in their fulfillment of their commitments on UNSCR 1325;
  • and to present this information in a clear, usable format that will be accessible to policymakers, civil society activists and other stakeholders.
The research has been carried out by Gender Action for Peace and Security UK (GAPS). GAPS is the expert UK civil society group working to promote, facilitate and monitor the meaningful inclusion of gender perspectives into UK policy and practice on peace and security.

Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=69760

Tracking Implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000)
Authors: Kuonqui,C.; Cueva-Betet,H.
Produced by: UN Women (2010)

This short document provides an overview of the framework which was developed to track the implementation of the 1325 resolution. It aims to establish results at the impact levels (the intended objective) and outcome levels (actual change). The framework is organised around four impact areas, or pillars, which were established as the overarching long-term goals of resolution 1325:
  • Prevention: Prevention of relapse into conflict and all forms of structural and physical violence against women and girls, including sexual and gender-based violence.
  • Participation: Inclusion of women and women's interests in decision-making processes related to the prevention, management and resolution of conflicts.
  • Protection: Women and girls' safety, physical and mental health and economic security are assured and their human rights respected.
  • Relief and recovery: Women's and girls' specific needs are met in conflict and post-conflict situations

To track each area's progress the framework uses a 'results chain' to map how interventions are intended to result in the desired change or impact. For each link in the chain a set of indicators have been developed to show whether it is being achieved. In conclusion the author suggests the framework contains signposts of progress in the achievement and protection of women's and girls' human rights in peace and security situations. As part of the framework, the indicators facilitate understanding of current peace and security issues, trends, and the distance between the current situation and desired goals.

Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=69761
 


Gender and Militarism
Produced by: Women Peacemakers Program (2014)

This Policy Brief is based on discussions held during the Global Consultation "Gender & Militarism: Analyzing the Links to Strategize for Peace", organized by the Women Peacemakers Program (WPP) from July 2- 4, 2014, in Cape Town, South Africa. The Global Consultation brought together over 70 women and men activists and academics, representing over 25 countries from all over the world, to discuss the multi-layered connections between gender and militarism. The WPP Global Consultation took place in the Cape Town City Hall, where Nelson Mandela held his first official speech a few hours after his release from prison on February 11, 1990. In his spirit of peace and reconciliation, the WPP Global Consultation called attention to the importance of investing in gender sensitive conflict prevention and nonviolent conflict resolution to advance the Women, Peace, and Security agenda.

During the 14 years UNSCR 1325 has existed, more than 40 National Actions Plans (NAPs) have been developed for national implementation of the Resolution. UNSCR 1325 has contributed to increased awareness of the need to address sexual and gender-based violence during armed conflict, increased women's participation in peace processes, and investment in gender training for the security sector. But many gaps, challenges and obstacles persist in moving from rhetoric to implementation of UNSCR 1325.

The Policy Brief outlines some key recommendations for the implementation of UNSCR 1325. These include:

 

  • Recognize that advancing the women, peace and security agenda is a multi-faceted process, which involves a diversity of actors (state, non-state, civil society, (women) peace activists), approaches and interventions – existing inside as well as outside the current peace and security systems.
  • UNSCR 1325 implementation requires redefining peace and security from a holistic gender perspective and going beyond "adding women and stir". This requires concrete actions such as investing in disarmament and arms control, with effective women's participation, conflict prevention and nonviolent conflict resolution.
  • Go beyond solely looking at numbers only in evaluating UNSCR 1325 implementation and effectiveness. Shifts in norms, values and overall culture need to be taken into account as well.
  • Involving gender-sensitive and nonviolent men as partners in discussions on Women, Peace and Security helps to move the issue beyond one for women-only to an issue of concern for all, broadening the support for its implementation.
  • There is no single blueprint for successful nonviolent organizing. Nonviolent strategies require creativity and need to be culturally and context-specific, inclusive, and supportive of women's substantive participation and leadership.
  • Document examples and results of women's nonviolent organizing and conflict resolution to capture the direct impact of nonviolent activism, and highlight the importance of investing in alternative conflict resolution mechanisms for sustainable peacebuilding.
  • Build bridges between different movements and fields of work - women's peace activism, masculinities, UNSCR 1325 lobby and advocacy, disarmament campaigns, economic and social rights, faith based peacebuilding - to broaden linkages, analyses and impact, and ensure the linking of local perspectives to global actions and campaigns.
Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=69720



 

 


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Contact details:
Elaine Mercer
Eldis Programme
Institute of Development Studies
Sussex Brighton BN1 9RE
UK

Email:eldis-gender@ids.ac.uk
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