Sunday, 28 August 2011

The Johannesburg Principles on the Role of Law and Sustainable Development

The Johannesburg Principles on the Role of Law and Sustainable Development adopted at the Global Judges Symposium held in Johannesburg, South Africa
on 18-20 August 2002


We affirm our commitment to the pledge made by world leaders in the Millennium Declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in September 2000 “to spare no effort to free all of humanity, and above all our children and grandchildren, from the threat of living on a planet irredeemably spoilt by human activities, and whose resources would no longer be sufficient for their needs”,
We express our firm conviction that the framework of international and national law that has evolved since the United Nations Conference on Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972 provides a sound basis for addressing the major environmental threats of the day, including armed conflict and attacks on innocent civilians, and should be underpinned by a more determined, concerted and sustained effort to implement and enforce these legal regimes in order to achieve their objectives,
We emphasize our commitment to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the UN Human Rights Conventions and recognize their close connection with sustainable development and upholding the Rule of Law,
We recall the principles adopted in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and affirmed adherence to these principles which lay down the basic principles of sustainable development,
We affirm that an independent Judiciary and judicial process is vital for the implementation, development and enforcement of environmental law, and that members of the Judiciary, as well as those contributing to the judicial process at the national, regional and global levels, are crucial partners for promoting compliance with, and the implementation and enforcement of, international and national environmental law,
We emphasize the importance of the peaceful resolution of conflicts to avoid situations in which weapons of war degrade the environment and cause irreparable harm directly through toxic agents, radiation, landmines and physical destruction and indirectly destroy agriculture and create vast displacement of people,
We recognize that the rapid evolution of multilateral environmental agreements, national constitutions and statutes concerning the protection of the environment increasingly requires the courts to interpret and apply new legal instruments in keeping with the principles of sustainable development,
We emphasize that the fragile state of the global environment requires the Judiciary as the guardian of the Rule of Law, to boldly and fearlessly implement and enforce applicable international and national laws, which in the field of environment and sustainable development will assist in alleviating poverty and sustaining an enduring civilization, and ensuring that the present generation will enjoy and improve the quality of life of all peoples, while also ensuring that the inherent rights and interests of succeeding generations are not compromised,
We agree that the Judiciary has a key role to play in integrating Human Values set out in the United Nations Millennium Declaration: Freedom, Equality, Solidarity, Tolerance, Respect for Nature and Shared Responsibility into contemporary global civilization by translating these shared values into action through strengthening respect for the Rule of Law both internationally and nationally,
We express our conviction that the Judiciary, well informed of the rapidly expanding boundaries of environmental law and aware of its role and responsibilities in promoting the implementation, development and enforcement of laws, regulations and international agreements relating to sustainable development, plays a critical role in the enhancement of the public interest in a healthy and secure environment,
We recognize the importance of ensuring that environmental law and law in the field of sustainable development feature prominently in academic curricula, legal studies and training at all levels, in particular among judges and others engaged in the judicial process,
We express our conviction that the deficiency in the knowledge, relevant skills and information in regard to environmental law is one of the principal causes that contribute to the lack of effective implementation, development and enforcement of environmental law,
We are strongly of the view that there is an urgent need to strengthen the capacity of judges, prosecutors, legislators and all persons who play a critical role at national level in the process of implementation, development and enforcement of environmental law, including multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs), especially through the judicial process,
We recognise that the people most affected by environmental degradation are the poor, and that, therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen the capacity of the poor and their representatives to defend environmental rights, so as to ensure that the weaker sections of society are not prejudiced by environmental degradation and are enabled to enjoy their right to live in a social and physical environment that respects and promotes their dignity,
We are also of the view that the inequality between powerful and weak nations in terms of their relative capacity and opportunity to protect the sustainable development of the shared global environment places a greater responsibility on the former to protect the global environment, and
We feel reassured that the implementation and further development of international environmental law aiming at sustainable development, the implementation of agreed international norms and policies, and the strengthening of the capacity of those engaged in promoting the implementation and enforcement of environmental law are cornerstones of the UNEP Programme of Work in the field of Evironmental Law, as reflected in the Nairobi Declaration adopted at the 19th session of the Governing Council in February 1997, and the Programme for the Development and Periodic Review of Environmental Law for the First Decade of the Twenty-first Century, adopted by the UNEP Governing Council in February 2001( Montevideo Programme III).

1)       A full commitment to contributing towards the realization of the goals of sustainable development through the judicial mandate to implement, develop and enforce the law, and to uphold the Rule of Law and the democratic process,
2)       To realise the goals of the Millenium Declaration of the United Nations General Assembly which depend upon the implementation of national and international legal regimes that have been established for achieving the goals of sustainable development,
3)       In the field of environmental law there is an urgent need for a concerted and sustained programme of work focused on education, training and dissemination of information, including regional and sub-regional judicial colloquia, and
4)       That collaboration among members of the Judiciary and others engaged in the judicial process within and across regions is essential to achieve a significant improvement in compliance with, implementation, development and enforcement of environmental law.

a)        The improvement of the capacity of those involved in the process of promoting, implementing, developing and enforcing environmental law, such as judges, prosecutors, legislators and others, to carry out their functions on a well informed basis, equipped with the necessary skills, information and material,
b)       The improvement in the level of public participation in environmental decision- making, access to justice for the settlement of environmental disputes and the defense and enforcement of environmental rights, and public access to relevant information,
c)        The strengthening of sub-regional, regional and global collaboration for the mutual benefit of all peoples of the world and exchange of information among national Judiciaries with a view to benefiting from each other’s knowledge, experience and expertise,
d)       The strengthening of environmental law education in schools and universities, including research and analysis as essential to realizing sustainable development,
e)        The achievement of sustained improvement in compliance with and enforcement and development of environmental law,
f)         The strengthening of the capacity of organizations and initiatives, including the media, which seek to enable the public to fully engage on a well-informed basis, in focusing attention on issues relating to environmental protection and sustainable development,
g)       An Ad Hoc Committee of Judges consisting of Judges representing geographical regions, legal systems and international courts and tribunals and headed by the Chief Justice of South Africa, should keep under review and publicise the emerging environmental jurisprudence and provide information thereon,
h)       UNEP and its partner agencies, including civil society organizations should provide  support to the Ad Hoc Committee of Judges in accomplishing its task,
i)         Governments of the developed countries and the donor community, including international financial institutions and foundations, should give priority to financing  the implementation of the above principles and the programme of work,
j)         The Executive Director of UNEP should continue to provide leadership within the framework of the Montevideo Programme III, to the development and implementation of the programme designed to improve the implementation, development and enforcement of environmental law including, within the applicable law of liability and compensation for environmental harm under multilateral environmental agreements and national law, military activities and the environment, and the legal aspects of the nexus between poverty and environmental degradation, and
k)        This Statement should be presented by the Chief Justice of South Africa to the Secretary-General of the United Nations as a contribution of the Global Judges Symposium to the forthcoming World Summit on Sustainable Development, and for broad dissemination thereof to all member States of the United Nations.

Adopted on 20th August 2002, in Johannesburg , South Africa.

Saturday, 27 August 2011

African Civil Society Steering Committee for WSSD (ASC) hosted by the Network for Environment and Sustainable Development in Africa (NESDA)

Report of the Second Pan African Conference of the Civil Society Organisations: Consolidating the Regional Agenda Towards WSSD and Beyond

17- 19 July 2002, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire



Executive Summary

1. Conference Opening
1.1. Opening Session
1.2. Attendance
2. Conference Overview
2.1. Conference Objectives
2.2 Expected Output
2.3 Adoption of Conference Work Program
2.4 Adoption of Sessions Officers
3 Thematic Presentations
3.1 Poverty Alleviation
3.2 Natural Resource Management
3.3 Energy and Transfer of Technology
3.4 NEPAD and Financing Sustainable Development in Africa
3.5 Mainstreaming Good Governance in African Development
3.6 Africa and Globalisation, Trade, Production and Methods of Sustainable Consumption
4 Networking and Alliances
4.1 AfDB Contribution
4.2. Activity Report of the Steering Committee of the African CSOs
4.3. Networking, Alliance building and Advocacy for Sustainable Development
5. Working Group Reports
5.1. Group 1 – Johannesburg Plan of Action
5.2. Group 2 – Lobbying Strategy and how to organize work in Johannesburg
5.3. Group 3 - Post Johannesburg
6. The Way forward
6.1. Steering Committee of African Civil Society Organisations and the Global forum.
6.2. WSSD Logistics
7. Adoption of Conference Preliminary Report
7.1. Preliminary Conference Report
7.2. Preliminary Abidjan Declaration
7.3. Press Communiqué
8. Closing Plenary

This report has been published by the Network for Environment and Sustainable Development in Africa (NESDA) on behalf of the African Steering Committee of Civil Society Organisations for the World Summit on Sustainable Development, August 2002.

The complete or partial reproduction of this publication without prior authorization from NESDA or the Committee is allowed for educational and non-lucrative purposes on condition that the source of information is cited. This publication shall neither be sold nor used for commercial purposes or otherwise
The opinions expressed in this document do not in anyway reflect the opinion or policies of NESDA. Titles used and presentations made in this document do not, on the part of NESDA, imply an opinion on the legal status of any country, territory, town or zone or any of its authorities, and does not in like manner refer to its boundaries or limits.


We wish to express our sincere appreciation to all participants at this conference as well as the main lecturers.
We equally extend our appreciation to our donors who made the organisation of this conference possible, especially the African Development Bank, UNDP Capacity 21, the ford foundation, the Danish Government and the Consortium of NGOs of the North 'Danish 92 Group'.

Executive Summary

The Johannesburg summit constitutes an exceptional occasion for the African civil society to finally assert itself as an indispensable partner in putting Africa back on the rails of sustainable development.
Following a series of consultations and conferences aimed at finalizing contributions in the preparatory process for the world summit on sustainable development, the African civil society organisations, since January 2002 in Nairobi, put in place a steering committee to pilot the summit activities and beyond. The creation of this committee was in fact done in response to the main desire or search for a self-determination required to confer on the African civil society, major responsibilities in the implementation of the decisions of Agenda 21 and the main conventions of Rio.

It is in this perspective that, the Network for Environment and Sustainable Development in Africa (NESDA) which heads the committee of the African civil society organisations, organised the present conference to establish a regional agenda for WSSD and beyond.

This conference, attended by 70 participants from 35 countries of the continent benefited from the financial and expert support of AfDB, UNDP Capacity 21, the Danish 92 Group, the Secretariat of the Summit and the South African Embassy in Côte d’Ivoire.

The deliberations of the conference were organised in three phases, to wit : discussions on the activities of the ASC and thematic presentations on key issues ; working groups ; and plenary discussions on the results of deliberations and the way forward.

Discussions on the 6 thematic issues identified by the steering committee (Poverty Alleviation, Natural Resource Management, Energy And Technology Transfer, NEPAD and Financing Sustainable Development, Mainstreaming Governance in African Development, and Globalization, Trade, Production and Methods of Sustainable Consumption in Africa) led to the definition of a specific vision for the African civil society for the challenges of the Johannesburg summit. Sustainable development for Africa in the next Millennium should be based on reducing poverty through the sustainable management of natural resources and favouring the transformation of natural capital-to-capital investment in order to attain the objectives of the Millennium Declaration. The objectives of NEPAD, in conformity with the Millennium undertakings will not only inject fresh blood but will also enable the taking of constructive decisions during the world summit on sustainable development. In this regard, the civil society as partners to the private sector and government should strengthen its internal capacity and make credible its actions. It should make use of this opportunity to get involved in the establishment of NEPADS strategies, policies and programmes by participating in discussions on systems of governance, communication, production and sustainable consumptions.
However, a strategy for African civil society participation in the summit was defined based on, a plan of action that was established, a strategy for lobbying and advocacy, and a policy for strengthening its accomplishment after the Johannesburg summit.

Finally, this conference offered an opportunity for the African civil society to make a commitment to work together as a unit to make its voice heard through an efficient communication and network system and to develop and adopt a plan of action to implement and follow up the outcome of the Johannesburg.


The 2nd Pan African Conference of Civil Society Organization was held at the Ebrié Conference Room of the Golf Hotel in Abidjan Côte d’Ivoire from the 17-19th of July 2002. This conference was focused on 'Consolidating the Regional Agenda towards the World Summit on Sustainable Development and Beyond'.

Since October 2001, a series of consultations and conferences have been undertaken to finalize the contribution of the CSOs to the preparatory process for the World Summit. These consultations were the African NGO caucus of Nairobi from 12-14 October 2001 and the Pan African Conference of CSOs (Nairobi from 8-12 January 2002) where the 93 participants of the different African Countries representing the civil society at this conference put up an African Steering Committee (ASC) for the WSSD, to coordinate the activities of the African CSO in the WSSD preparatory process.
The Johannesburg summit is a unique opportunity for the African civil society to have its voice heard in the constant fight to get Africa out of its marginalization. The creation of the ASC is seen as a response of the civil society in search for a self-determination, which will enable it to take up responsibilities in the implementation of the recommendations of Agenda 21 and the Rio Conventions.

The ASC seeks to develop an effective platform for exchange and dialogue, to build alliances and strong partnerships/linkages, to develop strategies for lobbying with African governments, intergovernmental organizations, UN and its agencies and other civil society organizations. Thus, the ASC received the mandate to direct the destiny of African civil society organizations and to consolidate the outcome, post-Johannesburg.

It is within this context that the 2nd PAC has been organized by the Network for the Environment and Sustainable Development in Africa (NESDA) and the secretariat of the civil society for WSSD – Africa Bureau, with the financial support of the Canadian Government through the African Development Bank (AfDB), UNDP Capacity 21, Ford Foundation, the Government of Denmark, and the consortium of NGOs of the North 'DANISH 92 GROUP'.

1. Conference Opening

1. Opening Session

Mr. Abou Bamba, NESDA Coordinator, highlighted in his welcome address that since its creation, NESDA has fulfilled its mission in more than 24 African countries and is recognized as a main pan African network on matters of the environment and sustainable development. The experts of NESDA have given technical support to governmental institutions and to NGOs involved in the establishment of national strategies, evaluation of institutional frameworks and the mobilization of financial resources for environmental management in different countries of the continent.
This meeting he highlighted, is the outcome of the preparatory process for the participation of the African Civil society organizations in the Johannesburg summit and beyond. In effect 10 years after Rio, the sustainable development agenda has practically remained a dead letter.

The consequences have been, the aggravation of the ecological crisis (reduction of biodiversity, deforestation, warming of the planet, etc.), the generalization of poverty, the disturbing expansion of the AIDS pandemic and the increase in conflicts (more than 20 wars on the continent). It is necessary to recognize that these elements constitute the real barriers to socio-economic development in our countries.

Delegates should benefit from this conference to make an analysis of Chapter 8 of the report of the Chairman of the Commission for sustainable Development, the only official document to be discussed at Johannesburg. Are the strategies in this report realistic? Are they convenient to organizations of the African civil society? What role can the African civil society play in the implementation and follow up? These are the questions which deliberations at this conference should offer responses.

Mme Irene Richier, Director of Cooperation in the Canadian Embassy, Côte d’Ivoire on her part, highlighted the mission of CIDA, which, for the last 40 years, supports sustainable development actions aimed at poverty reduction for a sure, just, and prosperous world. She recognized the importance of a solid partnership between the governments, CSOs and the private sector towards the socio-economic development of the continent.

Madam Richier recalled that the recently held Kananaski Summit in Canada, was an occasion for Canada to reaffirm its determination to support development in Africa. Canada’s commitment to support the countries of the south in the process of development will be made concrete through several initiatives the most important of which are, the free access of less advanced countries to Canadian markets, encouraging Canadian private partnership with African private sector, support to public governance, prevention of conflicts and peace and security, education, health, agricultural research, strengthening the capacity of civil society.

H. E. Mr. G. D. GWADISSO, the South African Ambassador to Côte d’Ivoire, on his part , assured participants of the on-going efforts by the South African Government to make their stay in South Africa a comfortable one for the success of the World Summit. He then pledged to make specific arrangements to facilitate obtaining visas by participants to the Johannesburg summit.

The essentials of the statement by Mr. Yogesh Vyas, Chief of the Unit for Poverty Reduction and Environment of AfDB, was on the importance of the conference which he described as a unique opportunity to review and consolidate the regional agenda of the CSOs and by this strengthen their position as crucial partners in reflecting on strategies for achieving the goals of the summit and beyond for sustainable development. In this regard, he reiterated AfDBs support to African CSOs through NESDA and its AfDB-NGO Committee within the implementation of the policy for sustainable development of the continent. The bank looks forward to a very fruitful collaboration with African CSOs for the implementation of the new bank policy for the environment and displaced persons adopted a few days before the Conference.

The Conference was official opening by H. E. Mr. Gilbert Bleu Lainé, Minister of Environment and Living Conditions for Côte d’Ivoire. After expressing his gratitude to NESDA for the role played in piloting the organization of the civil society, the Minister recalled Côte d’Ivoire’s efforts in December 2001 in evaluating the implementation of Agenda 21 within the preparatory process of WSSD and the putting in place of a 'Rio+10 National Committee'. The objective of this committee was to define a strategy for participation and to mobilize funds for the Johannesburg summit.

He further recalled that the challenges of the summit were enormous and the issues for deliberations were expected to lead to a clear vision of the African Civil Society organizations for development in the years ahead and to come up with strategies for the implementation of the forthcoming Summit’s resolutions. It is on this note he called on participants to have a fruitful deliberation and declared open the Conference.

2. Attendance

In attendance at this conference were 70 participants from 35 African countries. These were representatives of NGOs, Community based organizations, universities, researchers, etc. Representative from institutions such as FRAO, UNIFEM, Third World Network equally participated. Representatives from the AfDB, UNDP Capacity 21, Danish 92 Group, Secretariat for the Summit and the South African Embassy in Côte d’Ivoire also contributed significantly to the deliberations of the conference.

2. Conference Overview

1. Conference Objectives

The general objective of the conference was to develop an African Civil Society’s agenda for the World Summit. Its specific objective focused on two important points: Consolidating the thematic contribution of the CSOs and Adoption of a strategy for civil society involvement.

These aim at developing a common position on the African perspective to sustainable development and require the integration of a political framework, which, defines the ACS position on the identified specific issues.
As a follow up to the results of the PrepComs and the conclusions of the several consultations undertaken with donor organizations, CSOs of the region and other partners, the ASC proposed six thematic issues on which to reflect during the conference. These were, Poverty Reduction; Natural Resources Management; Energy and transfer of technology; NEPAD and financing sustainable development; Mainstreaming governance in African Development and, Africa and Globalization, Trade, Production and Methods of sustainable consumption.

Developing these thematic contributions will not only enable the ASC to review the achievements and weaknesses of sustainable development initiatives 10 years after Rio, but to also develop an African CSO perspectives/vision for sustainable development in the next millennium.

In summary this conference is expected to:

o Adopt the CSO contribution through its discussions on the work program for WSSD
o Adopt a strategy for presenting the African common position during the summit
o Adopt a lobbying strategy to mobilize support for the ACS common position during and after the summit.
The process of developing a CSO strategy shall be enriched with experiences of the South African CS Secretariat and that of experts identified by the CSO on issues of communication, lobbying and advocacy strategy.

2. Expected Output

The expected outcomes from the conference were as follows:

• A confirmed moral and technical support from the AfDB towards the involvement of CSOs in WSSD and beyond
• The CSO vision of sustainable development in Africa for the next millennium and the approved thematic contribution of CSOs into the summit
• A strategy for participation in the summit
• Adoption of a criteria for the selection of delegates to WSSD
2. Adoption of Conference Work Program

The activities of the conference as adopted were divided in three parts:

• Discussions on the activities of the African Steering Committee (ASC) and thematic presentations to address the priority issues

• Working Group Sessions
• Plenary discussions on the outcome of the meetings and the way forward

2. Adoption of Sessions Officers
Various sessions of the conference were chaired and co-chaired by members of the Steering Committee notably M Emad Adly, Belay Million, Rajen Awotar, Nicky Nzioki et Mmes Jeanne Marie Mindja, Woré Seck et Ekaete Udong.
Madame Gallega Prudence et M Gustave Aboua were appointed rapporteurs of the Pan African Conference.

2. Thematic Presentations

1. Poverty Alleviation

Poverty is the greatest challenge for Africa as it seeks to attain the goals of sustainable development and should therefore be a top ranking priority on the Civil Society Organizations agenda.
Poverty is a complex and a multidimensional phenomenon. It encompasses both income and non-income, dimensions of deprivation including lack of material means, lack of access to basic social services such as education, health and safe water, lack of personal security and lack of empowerment to participate in the political process and in decision-making processes.
The causes of this phenomenon are diverse but include amongst others according to World Bank sources:
o Inadequate access to employment opportunities;
o Inadequate physical assets, such as land and capital, and minimal access by the poor to credit even on a small scale;
o Inadequate access to the means of supporting rural development in poor regions;
o Inadequate access to markets where the poor can sell goods and services;
o Low endowment of human capital, destruction of natural resources, leading to environmental degradation and reduced productivity;
o Inadequate assistance for those living at the margins and those victimized by transitory poverty and;
o Lack of participation, failure to draw the poor into the design of development programs.
Environmental degradation contributes markedly to many, health threats through air and water pollution, poor sanitation and insect-transmitted diseases such as malaria.

This situation is exacerbated with AIDS in progression in Africa. The effect of AIDS/HIV on households is profound and contributes to the intensification of poverty. Poverty resulting from AIDS interacts with other dimensions of poverty to generate a vicious downward cycle deeply affecting Sub-Saharan Africa.

The reduction by half of poverty by 2015, can only be attained if Africa meets the following challenges:
o Attain and sustain an average growth rate of about 7% per annum.
o Develop national programs for sustainable development and community development promoting the empowerment of people living in poverty and their organizations;
o Deliver basic health services for all and reduce environmental health threats;
o Promote women’s participation in decision-making processes at all levels;
o Ensure education for all children at all levels;
o Build basic rural infrastructure, diversify the economy and improve access to markets and credit for the rural poor to support sustainable agriculture and rural development;
o Transfer basic sustainable agricultural techniques and knowledge including natural resources management, to small and medium scale farmers, fishermen and the rural poor;
o Strengthen HIV prevention, treatment and mitigation within the poverty reduction strategies;
o Combat desertification, drought and floods through improved land management, agricultural practices and ecosystem conservation; and
o Attain the goals of the Millennium Declaration, which is to improve the standard of living of 100 million inhabitants of 'slums' by the year 2020.

Finally, the fight to reduce poverty in Africa requires African Governments and the African Ministerial Conference on Environment (AMCEN) to adopt principles for sustainable development and to have poverty reduction as a central theme in all programs of assistance and for macro-economic and sectoral strategies.
Organizations of the African civil society are called upon to work with governments as partners in sustainable development. Consequently, they should defend the general interest of the people. In this regard, strategies to be developed for advocacy and lobbying with Governments, sub-regional organizations, funding bodies and agencies of the United Nations during the world summit should be focused on the following points:
• Encouraging the adoption and the implementation of the principles of sustainable development;
• Be in favor of working with governments as indispensable partners for sustainable development;
• Encourage the defense of best terms of exchange which favor immediate access by African countries to world markets;
• Put poverty reduction as a central theme to all programs of assistance;
• Call for the increased participation of Africa in the process aimed at mobilizing resources for effective medical interventions and preserving of the health system;
• Campaign for an increased international financial support in the fight against HIV/AIDS and other contagious diseases;
• Get African governments to grant a high priority to the health sector within its budgets and to jointly mobilize resources for strengthening capacities to improve sanitary infrastructures and systems.

1. Natural Resource Management

At the dawn of the 21st century, the African continent saw an unprecedented increase in the degradation of ecosystems with an accelerated rhythm in the disappearance of vegetal and animal species. The loss of arable land, loss of biological diversity, coastal and marine erosion as well as the destruction of freshwater ecosystems has attained a catastrophic level. Alongside this situation, the standard of living has drastically deteriorated due to the lack of an efficient system of domestic and/or industrial waste management. To this can be added the accelerated transformation of the natural environment which endangers the survival of vulnerable ecosystems notably continental and littoral humid zones.

The different assessments carried out in Africa have revealed that the environmental crisis is further felt since the level of development is very much dependent on the natural resources. Furthermore, in the context of a rapid demographic growth, the exacerbated degradation of ecosystems is accompanied by a continuous increase in the pressure on natural resources. The combined effects of these factors have led to a drastic reduction in the production of basic commodities, widespread food insecurity as well as an aggravation of conflicts related to access to natural resources. In addition, structural adjustment programs and its consequential effects from indebtedness amplify the impoverishment of the large mass and social categories. This situation has led to the adoption of a survival strategy, which affects resources even more and does not take into account the fundamental preoccupations of sustainable management of natural resources.
However, the orientation defined by NEPAD to address the weaknesses of environmental policies is certainly pertinent although the defined line of action is not articulated in a coherent manner.

In this regard, the logic of the African CSOs is for the Johannesburg summit to enable a reevaluation of the whole paradigm which underlies the policies put in place during the last decade in order to define new strategic options articulated on the preoccupations of sustainability and responding more efficiently to existing challenges.
To concretely achieve these operational results in Johannesburg for African countries, it is therefore indispensable to structure the line of action based on the following:

o Improvement of current practices in the development and implementation of environmental policies;
o Qualitative and quantitative improvement of CSOs’ involvement in the development and implementation of natural resources management and poverty reduction policies;
o Improvement of funding mechanism and existing procedures within cooperation agencies (institutional coherence, flexibility of procedures)
o Establishing a legal mechanism that can guarantee land security and access to natural resources of the marginalized population of Africa;
o Transformation of capital of natural resources to capital investment;
o Creation of an overall institutional condition for promoting the efficient implementation of the conclusions and recommendations emanating from the Rio+10 evaluation process.

1. Energy and Transfer of Technology

Energy constitutes an essential component for sustainable development and particularly in Africa, this implies the taking into account of sustainable energy defined as the sum of energy resources and technologies, which enable a sustainable use. Fossil energy resources are limited but the technologies are convertible and adaptable. An analysis of the situation is as follows:
o 1.6 milliard persons do not consume electricity
o 6% of the African population have access to modern energy
o 2% of energy consumption is to Africa a population of 700 million inhabitants with 66% in rural areas (3% average annual increase rate).

However, renewable resources such as solar, hydro energy, bio energy, aeolien, geothermal and marine energy are abundant in Africa.

NEPADs objective on energy in conformity with the Millennium objectives and the operational framework for AfDB and the UN do not only bring in a new approach but also permit the taking of major formal decisions during the WSSD.
The use of African fossil energy and hydro-energy to develop inter-connections to trans-continental electric networks, networks for oil and gas and the development of renewable energy fields such as solar and bio energy should permit Africa to embark on sustainable energy use which respects the environment and the whole living conditions of the population of the continent.

African oil, natural gas and their derivatives should serve as a means of energy transition towards a renewable energy usage approach as from the year 2030, based on bio energy (solid combustibles, liquids and gaseous) solar energy (photovoltaic and thermal) aeolian, geothermal, marine and hydro-electric resources. Technologies therefore, respecting the environment, permitting the transformation of these renewable resources to useful energy should be considered a strategic issue/crucial topic to be raised in Johannesburg.

In this regard, African CSOs are called to support all initiatives aimed at the implementation of Agenda 21 at all levels, local, national, regional and international. They should lobby African governments to:

o Address the phenomenon of desertification;
o Fight against Greenhouse effect and industrial waste
o Profit from lessons learned in the management of projects to develop sustainable national policies;
o Sharing benefits from research on new technologies
It is necessary therefore that African CSOs as partners of the private sector and government should strengthen their internal capacity and render credible their actions as well. CSOs should inform governments on the importance of clean technology ( Kyoto Protocol) for the benefit of the population.

1. NEPAD and Financing Sustainable Development in Africa

African leaders launched NEPAD as a comprehensive Africa-led framework and program of action to end Africa’s marginalisation and to reduce poverty by increasing economic growth by 7% annually for the next 15 years. NEPAD is a title, a framework for a new relationship of partnership between Africa and the international community to fill up the development gaps widened over centuries of unequal relationships and to place Africa on a path of sustainable growth and development.

NEPAD is a strategic framework document and not a project document. It sets out a strategic vision, thematic and sectoral content, the compact between the leaders, the people and external partners, and, an outline of the institutional mechanism for implementing the initiative.

However, based on the sectoral coverage contained in this document, the following areas of omissions and inadequacies have been identified:

o The transport section does not recommend the development of a national trunk and feeder road transportation networks prior to or in tandem with regional transportation systems advocated;
• The section on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) does not identify the ICT sector as a manufacturing or export sector as has been promoted in Asian Tigers and Indian;
• The energy interventions failed to identify the strategic importance of Africa’s petroleum resources in changing the fortunes of the region in international relations;
• In the mining segment, the document did not promote small-scale artisanal mining;
• Human resource development actions aimed at poverty reduction offered no critical analysis of the PRSP and similar aid-driven national strategy processes;
• Proposed actions in education does not consider non-formal education of the masses of uneducated people;
• The health section ignored environment and health linkages;
• The objectives of the water and sanitation section are appropriate but the defined actions do not sufficiently correspond to these objectives
• The environment section in the original NEPAD document did not cover forests and mountain ecosystems nor did it explicitly include biological diversity (This inadequacy was subsequently addressed)
• The document is silent on the link between the environment and poverty
• The strategic omission to call for the cancellation of debts
• The program did not adequately address the development of services. It did not address the importance of initiatives in an African context nor did it provide any information on the practical use of the program.
On the overall, NEPADs process uses a ‘Top-Down’ approach, which dictates the obligations of the African people. A major area of omission was the lack of a strategic and programmatic context for CSO involvement in the process. The desirable situation of optimal CSO involvement in the following areas is required:
• Reviewing and updating the framework and document
• Forwarding NEPAD’s message to the people and facilitating ownership and feedback processes
• Negotiating with external partners on the compact
• Lobbying and campaigning for financial and solidarity support from outside the region
• Organizing popular support for peer review decisions on political governance.

The opportunity for CSOs participation in the implementation of NEPAD must be used to catalyze improved public role in governance for sustainable development. This implies an integration of CSO in the development of NEPADs strategies, policies and programs and their participation in all debates on NEPAD within the framework of good governance and communication at all levels. Thereby, CSOs will create the space for the poor majority in Africa to express their opinion on and internalize NEPAD.

However to attain this objective, the following actions need to be taken:

• A joint CSOs-NEPAD team developing a program of action and financing mechanisms for CSO involvement in the NEPAD process;
• Including CSO representatives on official NEPAD review and implementation processes and organs, particularly at the national level;
• NEPAD secretariat and Steering Committee of African CSOs to identify influential CSOs at national and local levels to play advocacy roles in bringing the people and NEPAD together;
• Simplifying, reducing the content in non-technical terms and summarized form and translating the document into local languages for the ordinary citizen;
• African civil society organizations to play its role of inter mediating in service provision for the implementation of NEPAD;
• Identifying, establishing or using international lobby linkages with external CSOs to help sell NEPAD to citizens in partner countries of the North;
• The NEPAD Secretariat implementing the marketing plan for NEPAD with active CSO involvement backed by explicit programmatic and financial resource programming for such CSO involvement.

It is important to bring civil society on board very quickly through purposeful, interactive and ownership initiatives that are guided by effective multi-stakeholder process practice.

NEPAD, which is in an embryonic state, should seek for a consensus both externally and internally with African Civil society organizations. NEPAD certainly needs to be improved but the initiative should not be totally rejected.
1. Mainstreaming Good Governance in African Development

Governance as defined by Oxford 'is the act or manner of governing, or exercising control or authority over the actions of subjects and as a system of regulations'. Governance is no longer a preserve of only states. It has become a global phenomenon, which has been given a new impetus by the following points:

• The development failures of the African continent in the 1980s in particular, with structural adjustment reforms;
• The recognition of the failure of command economies and the emergence of a consensus on the relative efficacy of neo-liberal development strategies;
• The rise of pro-democracy movements in Africa and other parts of the developing world with the demand for good governance and more responsive forms of government as a rallying point;
• The growing concern that the widespread corruption is siphoning away both domestic and external resources.
• The phenomenal increases in globalization and its even stronger imperatives for sound domestic policy environment and economic management.

These and many more objective and subjective factors have compelled Africa to mainstream good governance as the best and surest way to eradicating poverty, combating disease including HIV/AIDS, promoting gender and intergeneration equity, protecting the environment, and for preventing, managing and resolving conflict for sustainable development.
Good governance has become the panacea for a durable solution to the myriad socio-economic and political problems of Africa. Out of the experiences of the slave trade, colonialism, anti-colonial struggles, cold wars rivalries and other struggles, African people have come to the conclusion that Africa’s future lies in the quality of governance reserved for its people.

The African Union and the New Partnership for African Development have correctly placed good governance at their centers. They both recognized that only through good governance can peace and democracy be built and can the much needed development goals for the continent be realized.

Good Governance calls for the popular participation of the citizens. There is need for an emphasis on mobilizing the traditional civil society organizations such as women, youths, syndicates, farmersm etc. who should be active in the process of governance and particularly the process of the world summit on sustainable development.
Good governance should favor the respect of the rights of the woman and gender equity. It should promote human rights and reject impunity.

1. Africa and Globalisation, Trade, Production and Methods of Sustainable Consumption
The issue of economic globalisation and the setting up of sustainable new production and consumption model creation is a subject of current debates between countries, international organisations, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The huge economic challenges emanating from the emergence of a new legal framework in terms of international trade relations under the auspices of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) is a source of enrichment for somewhat contradictory ideas. The triumph of neo-liberalism based on the principle of free movement of goods against the backdrop of strengthening with Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) necessarily leads to the adoption of new development policies in Africa.
In the given context marked with uncertainties and at the emergence of new mechanisms in the world economic order, how can development financing for the continent be secured? How can the economic and environmental particularities of Africa be taken into account within the framework of sustainable and fair trade? What should be the role of the African civil society and finance institutions in the advent of globalisation with a human face?

The need to finance development is one of the greatest concerns for the African continent, which depends generally on the support of foreign capital. The weak domestic saving limits dramatically the possibilities of endogenous financing. It is necessary therefore to create the necessary policy for public and private capital reception, attraction and commitment.
Within the framework of NEPAD, the African continent hopes to attract about 64 billions of Dollars in terms of investment per year and to attain a growth rate of 7% per year in the next 15 years through private investments. Africa represents a market of, more than 700 million consumers. She should be able to take advantage of the commercial rivalry between Europe, Japan and the US.

Financing development should be oriented towards priority sectors such as agriculture, education, health, new information technology, environment, energy, infrastructure and market access. The preeminence of these vital sectors contributes to the strengthening of human capital.
Development in Africa should have a foundation that can reconcile the needs of present generations and future ones. In other words, sustainable development should be fixed on legal provisions and adequate economic measures with the objective of sustainability. In order to achieve this, States should establish legal norms and economic measures susceptible to guarantee the protection of the environment. In this regard, the following should be taken into consideration:
o Quality standards establishing the maximum level of authorised pollution in a specific point of the environment or a geographic area in normal times.
o Emission standards specifying the quantity or concentration of pollutants that can be admitted from a specific source;
o The principle of polluter pays consisting in charging the polluter with the cost of pollution caused and consequential damage;
o Eco-labels, a new approach requiring manufacturers to examine the entire life cycle of products in order to reduce the degradation of the environment; and
o The precautionary principle promoted by the Cartagena Protocol on bio-safety in January 2000.
Civil society organizations play a key role in the process of democratization. Certainly in their relationships with states or international organizations, CSOs may not enjoy unanimity but can offer their expertise based on their experience in the field, for a better understanding of issues relating to globalization and international trade. In this regard, the contribution of CSOs for a responsible and accountable Africa in the process of globalization, international trade and sustainable production is based on the following points as a way forward:
• Enhancing the practice of good governance (breaking the chains of secrecy surrounding economic and public management decisions)
• Enhancing regional economic integration
• Democratisation of the negotiation system of WTO (participation of CSOs and lawmakers)
• Promoting sustainable and fair trade (opening of markets of the North to countries of the South, political action in favour of productions of the South within multilateral agreements).
3. Networking and Alliances

1. AfDB Contribution

The summit is a major preoccupation of the bank, which is part of the expanded secretariat. The bank has participated in several preparatory meetings of the Summit and is in the course of revising its policy of partnership with African civil society organizations. Although a co-sponsor of the present conference, the bank is further prepared to contribute to the organization and activities of the African CSOs.

There is need to emphasize that the contribution of the bank has no conditionality. Organizations of the civil society are free to use Bank subventions in accordance with their programs of activity.
Sustainable development within the vision of the bank is the acquisition, transformation, distribution and exploitation of resource in a manner that can support human activities without reducing the stock of natural resources. Consequently, the ecological capacity of the regeneration and assimilation of natural ecosystems should be maintained.
Finally, the bank also has a policy for youths and encourages networking of African Civil society organizations.
2. Activity Report of the Steering Committee of the African CSOs
The 'raison d’être' of the Committee is to consolidate the regional agenda for the world summit on sustainable development and beyond.

The steering committee effectively carried out its activities during the prepcom2 in New York where it held daily meetings under the umbrella of the African Caucus, prepared a position paper for the multi-stakeholder dialogue paper and reviewed the Chairman’s paper.

Also participating in Prep Com III the ASC began discussions on partnerships focusing on type2. A meeting to review chapter 8 of the Chairman’s paper dedicated to Africa was organized. Questions relating to funding were also discussed.
PrepCom IV held in Bali Indonesia, May 27 – June 5 2002 was a failure due to the disorganization of the African NGOs. However the need for global partnership in attaining the goals of sustainable development was affirmed as well as the need for a strategically targeted integrated approach for the implementation of Agenda 21.
Finally the members of the committee identified the lack of collaboration, means and information as major constraints to the effective contribution of the committee during the different preparatory meetings for the summit.
However, the committee was able to play its role during these meetings although it lacked the means vis a vis its counterpart NGOs of the North who were better prepared and had sufficient means for their actions. The committee learnt lessons from its participation and hopes to obtain from this conference a strategy to strengthen its visibility on the international scene.

3. Networking, Alliance building and Advocacy for Sustainable Development

All CSOs should have a historical background, continuity, an enlarged national network, a clear mandate, a simplified structure, capacity to mobilize members and a regular attendance at international fora.
The experiences of the Danish 92 Group provide key lessons about strong national networks. About two and half years ago, the Danish 92 Group put in place a strategy for the Johannesburg Summit. Public Awareness programs were carried out on the goals and challenges of the summit on sustainable development. The group is a member of an international coalition group, ECO, which has been lobbying at international level. Based on its organizational structure and capability, the group was selected by the UN as one of the facilitators of the multi stakeholder dialogue (G77, UN system).
It was recalled that the failures of the African Civil Society in Bali could be attributed to the existence of weak national networks. Priority actions need to be taken aimed at improving the networking strategy as opposed to an individualistic approach.

For lobbying and advocacy, there is need for legitimacy, achieving desired goals and defined objectives by using occasions, persons, knowledge and information. The identified steps in advocacy include identification, documentation and the analysis of key issues, organization of meetings and publication.
Equally important are the organizational structures in approaches to advocacy, which should be appropriate to the circumstances, have a convenient program, realistic objectives, tools and resources. Advocacy also calls for negotiating with and targeting persons and partners and the adoption of strategic positions.

4. Working Group Reports

5.1. Group 1 – Johannesburg Plan of Action

Working Group One was mandated to examine the draft Political Declaration and the bracketed issues of the chairman’s text, in particular Chapter 8 and 9 and the funding mechanism.
The Political Declaration starts off with a general observation on the failure in the implementation of Agenda 21 in Africa. Since Rio 92, Africa remains the continent of all the ills (AIDS, poverty, environmental degradation, desertification, armed conflicts, bad governance, etc.) the continent is also confronted with major challenges to positively negotiate sustainable development, amongst others, health, education, good governance, capacity building.
Sustainable development is incompatible with all other crisis mentioned above. In this regard, the group recommended:
• Greater implication of all partners in the process of decision making,
• Complete cancellation of external debts;
• Aid for development to be directed towards the improvement of economic and social conditions of African Countries;
• New distribution method for resources to ensure that public aid to development is effective;
• Distribution of benefits from foreign investment.
NEPAD, which seeks to promote sustainable development on the continent through strategic priorities, has not adopted a participative process. The African civil society in recognizing the importance of NEPAD need to be highly involved in the final discussions on the adoption of the final document.
Discussions in plenary failed to adopt the proposal for the Political Declaration for want of a consensus on the content of the final declaration. There was however a consensus on the need to restructure the document making it concise and focused in content, highlighting the key issues and conclusions of the conference. A drafting committee was to be put in place with the mandate of finalizing and distributing the Finalized Political Declaration.
It was also suggested that Internet discussions be carried out on the commentaries to Chapter 8 and 9 of the Chairman’s text. The ASC was mandated to prepare the final document based on these discussions and to ensure that it reflects the adopted vision of the African Civil Society on sustainable development.

5.2. Group 2 – Lobbying Strategy and how to organize work in Johannesburg

Discussions in this group were focused on the following major points:
• Major guidelines and principles of advocacy and lobbying
• Defining a structure for the African CSOs and Proposals for strengthening the functioning capacity of the Steering Committee.
• Objectives and program of daily activities at Sandton and Nasrec during the summit
The agreed structure of the African NGOs provides for:
• An ASC at the regional level. The ASC as the overhead steward to have a secretariat (NESDA was called upon to play the role of the secretariat). The ASC to agree on a division of tasks.
• Sub-regional and national focal points where existent to be maintained and their capacity strengthened.
• Thematic working groups also recommended within this structure to clearly develop thematic areas.
To be productive in its relationship with the International Steering Group, ECO, focal points in Africa, Asia and Europe a strategy was put in place with pre-summit and summit priority actions.

Pre-summit activities:

o At national level: produce newsletters, continuous lobbying at national levels and ensuring that the positions are reflected on government positions relating to specific themes for WSSD and briefing of journalists in countries prior to the summit.
o For south-south linkage: create a database of collaborating African networks.
o For a south-north linkage lobbying with the existing partners and developing packages of interests to such partners.
Activities during the summit:
• Active participation in the multi-stakeholder dialogues using the nine caucus groups of the UN major groups
• Lobbying national governments, sub-regional African institutions, African and international institutions
• Arrange meetings with EU, G77, Friends of the chair countries and other key-countries in the negotiation process.
A log frame for defining lobbying strategies/activities related to lobbying at various levels and the target partners/persons was provided. All elements provided by the three working groups to be fitted in this log frame.
To improve the flow of information among African networks/focal points the defined strategy provides for access to information while in Johannesburg, an outreach strategy and visibility for the African CSOs and strategies to ensure a two-way information flow. These strategies equally targeted those away from the summit
A daily work program was outlined on how to work in Sandton and establish daily links with the Nasrec team, the main objective here being to influence officials through lobbying and alliances initiatives and, ensuring there is a strong social movement and interchange of experiences. The membership for the new composition of the ASC in Johannesburg was also clearly defined.

5.3. Group 3 - Post Johannesburg

Post Johannesburg is expected to reaffirm the healthy alliances and networks so far established. Elements of this strong network should include:
• a good communication strategy
• a simple and efficient structure
• a flexible and transparent management with responsible members
• a viable source of funding
• a focal point available for activities of the network
• Permanent meetings
The structure of the network should comprise three working groups on Policy development, Evaluation and Management and, Advocacy, lobbying and Capacity building. Furthermore, the network to be put up after Johannesburg should be inclusive in nature. A major recommendation was for syndicate and agricultural groups to be members of the network.
However, for an efficient and optimal utilization of the opportunities offered by the global forum, the following actions post Johannesburg are necessary:
• Participation in all international caucus and the creation of alliances for the future
• Meetings with international NGOs to forge alliances
• Specifically prepare one of the key issues and seek to search for solutions
Maputo Declaration (African Civil Society Organisations)

To the Second Summit of the Heads of States and Governments of the African Union,
Maputo, Mozambique
4th- 12th July 2003

We, the members of the African Civil Society having met on the occasion of the second summit of the Heads of States and Governments of the African Union, Maputo - Mozambique, 27th June - 02nd July 2003, hereby submit the following declaration which pronounces our convictions, commitment and call for action in attaining and realising a people centered African Union.
Noting your commitment to build partnerships with all segments of civil society as enshrined in the constitutive act of the African Union;   
Believing that we have a vital role to play in the formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes for the advancement of development in Africa;
We reaffirm our belief and commitment in an African society characterised by:
• Unity in diversity, equality and equity;
• Guaranteed fundamental human rights and basic needs of its people;
• Effective participation and empowerment of all stakeholders in particular women, the elderly, persons with disabilities, youth, children and the poor in decision making processes;
• Participatory democracy and sustainable development;
In pursuit of the above, we are deeply concerned about:
• The continued imposition and adoption of neo-liberal policies that continue to impoverish the African people;
• The continued gross violation of human and economic rights especially in Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Liberia, Cote D'Ivoire, Burundi, Sudan, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Somalia, Nigeria, Western Sahara amongst others;
• The civil strife and armed conflict in the continent;
• The deteriorating terms of trade within the continent;
• Lack of access, deterioration and privatisation of basic social services such as water, energy, health and education;
• The erosion / neglect of African cultural heritage;
• The ballooning levels of internal and external debt;
• The lack of political will to resolve the exploitation and mismanagement of natural resources in particular   energy, water, minerals, flora and fauna aAnd marine resources;
• Plundering, mismanagement, removal of local resource management and lack of benefit sharing, through inter alia biopiracy, promotion of genetically modified organisms and patents on life and life processes;
• Lack of corporate accountability by transnational corporations; 
• The HIV/AIDS pandemic and other diseases such as malaria, TB and its socio-economic implications particularly for orphans and children and elderly in Africa;
• The lack of collective and concrete actions to resolve the land issues in Africa;
We therefore call on the African Heads of states and governments to:
• Recognise, engage and utilise indigenous knowledge systems, which is inherent and intrinsic to the poor and resides amongst them.  This is as a means to involve the poor in social and economic upliftment processes by investing in them as a resource of development;
• Fight corruption and pursue good economic governance and make aid more responsive to development needs through the establishment of a joint civil society - government forum to engage donors and development partners;
• Respect the commitments made and agreed to, for the effective popular participation and promotion of human rights and democracy as enshrined in the international and national conventions;
• Develop democratic and autonomous local level institutions involved in land acquisition, allocation, conflict resolution and land management;
• Formulate natural resources management policies and legal frameworks that ensure improved access to land, forests, wildlife, water, fisheries and mineral resources by the rural communities;
• Ensure that all state members ratify the peer review mechanism;
• Further urge the African Union to consult widely and ensure that the peer review is done in an objective and transparent manner;
• Ensure that all members ratify international treaties and agreements such as the ODCCP protocol, ILO 182 (worse forms of child labour) as part of its task to combat child abuse especially the trafficking of children for sexual exploitation as well as the implementation of the African charter and the convention of the rights of the child;
• Strengthen the peace and resolution mechanism set in the continent;
• Take a united stance and common position in rejecting the 'new issues' at the fifth ministerial meeting of the WTO - investment, competition, transparency in government procurement and trade facilitation; and rolling back agreements that have exacerbated poverty, underdevelopment and injustice;

Reclaim and retain policy space for the regulation and monitoring of the movements of capital investments and transnational corporations on the continent;
• Enhance intra-regional trade and harmonise policy frameworks in regional economic communities including establishment of mechanisms for regulation and control;
• Take collective action on the call for total and unconditional cancellation of African countries external debt, restitution of our stolen wealth and the 'demand' for reparations;
• Honour the Dakar commitments on quality basic education for all by 2015 in addition to previous un declarations on education since Jomteim;
• Agree on a well defined civil society space for engagement in the context of AU and NEPAD;
• Ensure the participation of youth for intergenerational equity in all AU / NEPAD organs and processes;
• Abide by the principle of parity in the organs of the African Union and NEPAD to guarantee gender balance in decision-making processes of each member state;
• Ensure participation of civil society to the specialised technical commissions of the African Union;
• Halt and reverse water privatisation, biopiracy planting of GMO and life patents through national laws, collective positions and strategies at the WTO, IMF and world bank, implementing their commitments to multilateral and regional environmental agreements, ensuring corporate accountability;
• Support agricultural marketing, extension services, credit and research with a gender perspective to enhance food security;
• Release all imprisoned African journalists and repeal all anti-free expression legislation in Africa;


In conclusion, we want to welcome the principle in the constitutive act of the African Union, which allows participation of the African peoples in its vision.
We are convinced of   the crucial role played by the civil society in development and governance and further call the AU member states to establish the necessary mechanisms to involve civil society in policy making, development planning, implementation monitoring and evaluation in accordance with the African charter on popular participation and development.
Civil society shall continue to engage with NEPAD. We urge African leaders to partner with African civil society in all processes of implementation and further urge for a process that does not replicate structural adjustment programmes, which have impoverished the continent but take into consideration the views and needs of Africa.
The success of the AU will depend on the active involvement of the African people, governments, business community, civil society organisations and groups relevant to the struggles of the oppressed / marginalised and excluded majority of the continent.


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