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Tuesday, 31 August 2010

Sustainable Development

http://www.globalissues.org/issue/367/sustainable-development


The idea of sustainable development grew from numerous environmental movements in earlier decades. Summits such as the Earth Summit in Rio, Brazil, 1992, were major international meetings to bring sustainable development to the mainstream.

However, the record on moving towards sustainability so far appears to have been quite poor. The concept of sustainability means many different things to different people, and a large part of humanity around the world still live without access to basic necessities.

Poverty and the Environment

Many readers are probably familiar with the tale of four blind men being asked to identify the object in front of them. Each blind man just investigated a part so no one identified the whole as an elephant. Similarly, both environmental degradation and poverty alleviation are urgent global issues that have a lot in common, but are often treated separately. This article explores some of these linkages.

Both environmental degradation and poverty alleviation are urgent global issues that have a lot in common, but are often treated separately. Consider the following:

•Human activities are resulting in mass species extinction rates higher than ever before, currently approaching 1000 times the normal rate;
•Human-induced climate change is threatening an even bleaker future;
•At the same time, the inequality of human societies is extreme:
•The United Nations 1998 Human Development Report reveals that, “Globally, the 20% of the world’s people in the highest-income countries account for 86% of total private consumption expenditures—the poorest 20% a minuscule 1.3%”
•To highlight this inequality further, consider that approximately 1 billion people suffer from hunger and some 2 to 3.5 billion people have a deficiency of vitamins and minerals
•Yet, some 1.2 billion suffer from obesity
•One billion people live on less than a dollar a day, the official measure of poverty
•However, half the world — nearly three billion people — lives on less than two dollars a day.

http://www.globalissues.org/article/425/poverty-and-the-environment

Monday, 30 August 2010

L’AVENIR DE L’ENVIRONNEMENT EN AFRIQUE : NOTRE ENVIRONNEMENT, NOTRE RICHESSE

L’AVENIR DE L’ENVIRONNEMENT EN AFRIQUE : NOTRE ENVIRONNEMENT, NOTRE RICHESSE

Le développement économique en Afrique s’appuie sur la qualité et l’intégrité de ses ressources naturelles. Les biens environnementaux de la région procurent des
opportunités à l’Afrique pour qu’elle réalise les objectifs du Nouveau partenariat pour le Développement de l’Afrique (NEPAD). L’Afrique ne peut donc pas se permettre de
perdre ses biens environnementaux. Des centaines de millions d’habitants dépendent directement ou indirectement de ces biens.

Les gouvernements africains reconnaissent ce fait et ont mis en place des mesures pour sauvegarder ces biens précieux, notamment, l’adoption fondamentale du Plan d’action de
Lagos en 1980. Celui-ci proposait des mesures concrètes pour prendre en charge la corrélation entre l’environnement et le développement et stipulait, entre autres, la
nécessité que les gouvernements africains définissent des options politiques, des stratégies et des programmes réalistes pour incorporer les considérations
environnementales à la planification du développement.

http://www.iied.org/pubs/pdfs/7280FIIED.pdf









L’AVENIR DE L’ENVIRONNEMENT EN AFRIQUE : NOTRE ENVIRONNEMENT, NOTRE RICHESSE

L’AVENIR DE L’ENVIRONNEMENT EN AFRIQUE : NOTRE ENVIRONNEMENT, NOTRE RICHESSE

Le développement économique en Afrique s’appuie sur la qualité et l’intégrité de ses ressources naturelles. Les biens environnementaux de la région procurent des
opportunités à l’Afrique pour qu’elle réalise les objectifs du Nouveau partenariat pour le Développement de l’Afrique (NEPAD). L’Afrique ne peut donc pas se permettre de
perdre ses biens environnementaux. Des centaines de millions d’habitants dépendent directement ou indirectement de ces biens.

Les gouvernements africains reconnaissent ce fait et ont mis en place des mesures pour sauvegarder ces biens précieux, notamment, l’adoption fondamentale du Plan d’action de
Lagos en 1980. Celui-ci proposait des mesures concrètes pour prendre en charge la corrélation entre l’environnement et le développement et stipulait, entre autres, la
nécessité que les gouvernements africains définissent des options politiques, des stratégies et des programmes réalistes pour incorporer les considérations
environnementales à la planification du développement.

http://www.iied.org/pubs/pdfs/7280FIIED.pdf


http://www.unep.org/DEWA/Africa/docs/fr/aeo-2/chapters/ae0-2_Executive_Summary_FR.pdf


http://www.unpei.org/PDF/stakeholderengagement/P-E-CSLP-Fre.pdf


http://www.grida.no/publications/other/aeo/?src=http://www.grida.no/aeo/french/328.htm

INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE: Building the Natural Assets of the World’s Poor

INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE: Building the Natural Assets of the World’s Poor

Across the globe, vibrant social movements are emerging that link issues of resource access, social security, environmental risks, and disaster vulnerability. Although everyone suffers the
effects of pollution, global warming, and resource exploitation, poor people are especially vulnerable since they live closer to the margin of survival and are less able to afford cushions
from environmental ills. At the same time, poor communities often face disproportionately heavy burdens from environmental degradation. Increasingly, low-income urban and rural communities
around the world are organizing to fight for environmental justice – that is, for more equitable access to natural resources and environmental quality, including clean air and water. These new
environmental movements connect sources and sinks; North and South; ecology and equity; and asset building and hazard vulnerability. They have begun to articulate new ideas about the
quality of life, and about the meaning of development and modernization.

Environmental pollution and natural resource degradation are not simply ‘quality of life’ issues primarily of concern to middle-class people in the global North. In cities of both the North and
the South, it is often the residents of poor neighborhoods who are most exposed to air fouled by car exhaust, diesel fumes, and deliberate and accidental industrial emissions. As urban growth
accelerates, poor neighborhoods struggle for access to green space, public transportation, sanitation, and clean water and air. And in rural areas, it is the poor who are most dependent on
natural resources from fisheries and forests, to rivers and rangelands, and at the same time least able to protect them from despoliation.

http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1005&context=krista_harper

Monday, 9 August 2010

Strengthening locus standi in Public Interest Environmental Litigation: Has Leadership Moved from the United States to South Africa?

http://www.lead-journal.org/content/10163.pdf


There is an increasing shift towards globalisation not only of the world economies but also of the world's legal systems. Broadening of locus standi in South Africa has deconstructed the fears that informed the conservative common law approach to the issue of locus standi or standing, with its roots in private law individual rights. Most of the reasons advanced for constraining locus standi in public interest environmental law, and constitutional matters for that matter, can all be ameliorated through procedural safe guards and rules tried and tested under the common law, such as rules regarding legal costs, and keeping frivolous and vexatious litigation out of the courts.

However, the USA seems to be lagging behind in mainstreaming global international developments in public interest environmental litigation, particularly at the federal level by sticking to archaic common law rules on standing where a litigant wants to bring suit on behalf of the environment. The strict approach to standing in federal courts in the USA since the times of Sierra Club v Morton can be change if the federal judges are prepared to make use of comparative constitutional analysis in adjudication, drawing on lessons from a number of progressive new democracies, in this case the South African experience.

I argue that the US federal courts have moved too slowly in following international and foreign developments in the modernisation of the rules governing public interest environmental litigation to the detriment of sustainable development and environmental civic organisations in the USA. I conclude that it is time for the US federal courts, and other conservative common law jurisdictions, to make use of comparative constitutional tools to modernise this blemish aspect of their jurisprudence, following the lead by South Africa.

http://www.lead-journal.org/content/10163.pdf

Legislative Regulation of Traditional Medicinal Knowledge in Eritrea

On 21 March 1996, Eritrea acceded to the Convention on Biological Diversity which, among others, obliges states to sustainably conserve and develop customary uses of biological resources. Among the many forms of traditional practices of biological resources is traditional medicinal knowledge. Research has revealed that Eritrea has abundant pool of such knowledge and a high percentage of its population, as it is true with many developing and underdeveloped countries, resorts to traditional medicine for curing numerous ailments.

However, no specific policy or legislative framework has yet been developed to sift, preserve and encourage the practice. Analysis of existing Eritrean laws and policies will show that they are neither adequate nor specific enough to be used in the preservation and development of Eritrean traditional medicinal knowledge. This article will, therefore, in view of the rich, yet unregulated, traditional medicinal knowledge resource in Eritrea, highlight the need for the development of a specific legal instrument legislation for Eritrea from the perspective of international and country level experiences. It will be argued that the development of a specific legislation is preferred to the alternative of keeping traditional medicinal knowledge as a component of a legal instrument developed for a larger mass such as health or traditional knowledge.

http://www.lead-journal.org/content/10130.pdf

LINKING ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND POVERTY REDUCTION IN AFRICA: AN ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL LEGAL RESPONSES TO

Poverty has been identified as the main cause and consequence of environmental degradation in Africa . It follows that if poverty is the main cause of environmental degradation in Africa , then policies, programmes and legal provisions designed to protect the environment in the region will be unsuccessful without a significant improvement in the living standards, wellbeing and livelihoods of the poor. In the same breath, since poverty is a consequence of environmental degradation, then the protection of the environment is critical to the achievement of poverty reduction initiatives such as the Millennium Development Goals in Africa .

Hence, it can be argued that there is a mutual relationship between the achievement of environmental protection and reduction of poverty in Africa . This article therefore examines the extent to which the various regional legal instruments for the protection of the environment in Africa recognise this mutual linkage by providing for the promotion of poverty reduction and socio-economic development as integral aspect of their objective of ensuring the protection of the environment in the region.

http://www.lead-journal.org/content/10112.pdf

Tanzania : National Aquaculture Legislation Overview

National Aquaculture Legislation Overview

http://www.fao.org/fishery/legalframework/nalo_zambia/en

Over the past few decades, environmental protection has emerged from a point of obscurity to one of the important issues of our time. Both at the international and national planes, the dominant theme of the environmental protection movement is the achievement of sustainable development.1 It is the theme, which underlies the Rio Declaration on Development and Environment, the Tanzania National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) and the Tanzania National Conservation Strategy for Sustainable Development (NCSSD).2 The contemporary international norm which underpins environmental law generally is undoubtedly the notion of sustainable development. The pioneering World Commission on Environment and Development (the Brundtland Commission) convened by the United Nations General Assembly in 1983 in response to global environmental concerns, describes sustainable development as, ‘the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’

Water Law, Water Rights and Water Supply in Zambia – Issues and Perspectives

Water Law, Water Rights and Water Supply in Zambia – Issues and Perspectives

http://www.bvsde.paho.org/bvsacd/cd46/zambia.pdf

Over the past two decades, a number of international declarations have sought to ensure access to safe water and sanitation for the majority (or all) of the world’s people. Despite these
declarations, however, the reality is that clean water and safe waste disposal remains a life and death problem in much of the world – that in the 21st century. Zambia’s population stands at over 9 million with a high urbanisation rate resulting in over 50% of the population living in urban and periurban areas.

Zambia’s population with access to safe drinking water is estimated at 43% and the corresponding figure for sanitation is 23%. This is so despite commendable investment programmes being implemented with the support of donor agencies during and after the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (IDWSSD). One of the major lessons has been that solutions to community water supply and sanitation should be sought less in technology and products and more in social, institutional and financial domains. In other words, more in the “software” domain.

Unfortunately, even in this new awakening, water laws and water rights issues have so far been considered peripheral. For example, extremely rarely is an individual’s basic right to an adequate water supply enshrined in national law. The paper attempts to identify (and promote awareness and understanding of), the constraints and enabling conditions provided by existing water laws (statutory and customary) with regard to the poor having access to, or being entitled to, a safe and reliable supply of water and sanitation.

The paper examines Zambia’s water policy, laws and rights regimes as they relate to water supply and sanitation provision for the poor while at the same time putting into perspective the current debate surrounding economic, social and cultural rights vis-a-vis political and civil rights. It is concluded that there are more constraints than enabling conditions provided to domestic water supply and sanitation (provision and access) for rural/urban poor by written and unwritten local/national laws and water rights (and related) issues in Zambia
.

Environmental Law in Developing Countries

Environmental Law in Developing Countries

http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/EPLP-043.pdf

POVERTY AND ENVIRONMENT: PRIORITIES FOR RESEARCH AND POLICY

POVERTY AND ENVIRONMENT: PRIORITIES FOR RESEARCH AND POLICY

http://personal.lse.ac.uk/FORSYTHT/povenv_forsyth_leach.pdf

Wildlife utilization in Côte d’Ivoire and West Africa - potentials and constraints for development cooperation

Wildlife utilization in Côte d’Ivoire and West Africa - potentials and constraints for
development cooperation

http://www2.gtz.de/dokumente/bib/00-0441.pdf

Kenyan Forests and International Law


By Arie Trouwborst*

Kenya has long prided itself as a conscientious actor in the international arena, not in the last place when it comes to the conservation and sustainable use of the natural environment. The Kenyan government has actively supported the development and implementation of many an international convention with bearing on the environment. Hosting oHostingkkthe headquarters of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), its capital Nairobi is a prominent centre of international environmental law and policy. Recent events, however, have threatened to cast a shadow over this record of international performance.

http://www.wrm.org.uy/countries/Kenya/law.html

Sunday, 8 August 2010

Environmental Justice in South Africa

The history of environmental policy in South Africa is a cruel and perverse one. Under colonial and apartheid governments, thousands of black South Africans were forcibly removed from
their ancestral lands to make way for game parks, and billions of rands were spent on preserving wildlife and protecting wild ¶owers while people in “townships” and “homelands”1 lived without adequate food, shelter, and clean water. Whites-only policies in national parks meant that black South Africans could not enjoy the country’s rich natural heritage, and draconian poaching laws kept the rural poor from desperately needed resources (Beinart and Coates 1995; Carruthers 1995).

In short, ¶ora and fauna were often considered more important than the majority of the country’s population. As a result, black South Africans (and anti-apartheid activists in general) paid little attention to environmental debates during the apartheid era. At best, the environment was seen to be a white, suburban issue of little relevance to the anti-apartheid struggle. At worst, environmental policy was seen as an explicit tool of racially based oppression.
With the easing of apartheid legislation in the late 1980s and the unbanning of anti-apartheid political parties and activists in the early 1990s, all of this changed. The liberalization of South African politics created discursive and institutional space for a rethinking of environmental issues, and a vibrant debate on the meaning, causes, and effects of environmental decay began in earnest. Perhaps the most fundamental of these developments was the simplest: a broadening of the de¤nition of ecology.

Once the environment was rede¤ned to include the working and living space of black South Africans it quickly became apparent that environmental initiatives were akin to other post-apartheid, democratic objectives.
A wide range of trade unions, nongovernmental organizations, civic associations, and academics quickly adopted the new environmental discourse and within a few short years began to challenge the environmental
practices and policies of the past (Cock and Koch 1991; Ramphele and McDowell 1991).

http://www.ohioswallow.com/extras/0821414151_excerpt.pdf

Solidarity for Environmental Justice in Southern Africa

This position paper is an invitation to build stronger solidarity in support of environmental justice in Southern Africa. The immediate reason is that our communities and activists are faced with a commodity boom - a new scramble for Africa. The new scramble, like the old, is driven by the interests of outside powers, the traditional players now joined by China, India and Brazil, in the
resources of Africa. These interests are being accommodated by African governments, who themselves are taking part in the scramble, while the legacies of previous rounds of accumulation and their effects on people’s environments have not yet been cleaned up and are unlikely ever to be cleaned up.

The balance of political power in all of our societies, while dynamic and subject to ongoing change, suggests that Southern Africa will face increasing environmental injustice in the way its resources are used, including the ongoing enclosure of people’s commonly owned and used resources into private domains, the unequal and unfair relationships between local populations,national decision makers and private investors, the ongoing exclusion from decision making of local communities, and the intensifying imposition of externalities. Current developments,specifically the commodities boom and the rapid expansion of South African business and industry into the region, make it increasingly less feasible for environmental justice activists in the region to continue working in isolation in our respective countries. Southern Africa is already a single unit, and increasingly EJ activists face the same polluting companies and similar issues in different settings in the region.

This paper explores the idea of environmental justice in Southern Africa, in the context of the region’s history and current challenges

http://www.groundwork.org.za/Publications/Solidarity%20for%20EJ%20in%20SA.pdf

African Climate Change: A Call for Environmental Justice

African Climate Change: A Call for Environmental Justice

December 18th, 2009 Leave a comment Go to comments
Rev. Tegga Lendado, PhD.

African environmental justice is long overdue. Africans need global leadership and personal commitment to save their children. Not only talk, but action! It is not about the usual so-called ‘global warming’ debate but the erratic African climatic crisis induced by its detrimental effects.
.
The world’s climate summit in Copenhagen, Denmark is convening to devise an international strategy on the issue the environmental crisis affecting global climate. Africa’s contribution is negligible compared with the Western nations, Japan and China. As such, Africa is a victim of the climatic extremes that threaten the life of innocent human beings and their environment. For too long, Africans arguably attributed the climate crisis to God’s wrath for our spiritual conditions and so on.

But, now we have found out that our enemies are “we” on the other hemisphere. The culprits in Copenhagen will play the role of both defendant and judge at the same time. Africans have no choice but to stand and fight for their right to survive. They need to live like others. They believe they have God-given right to freely breathe unpolluted air. They do not want to be extinct like the dinosaurs. Thus, it now becomes a moral issue for the Western and industrialized nations to clean up their mess. You cannot kill someone and go back to your bed to sleep and snore. God will shake up your conscience if you have any. Some how, someway the Almighty God who created us equally from the dust but in His own image will execute His justice. Fighting for climate conservation is a just war. It is for the survival of the poorest and the weakest rather than the fittest.

The Ethiopian Prime Minister Zenawi, who is a controversial figure with regards to his own government, represents the victimized 53 Africa nations and peoples. Nevertheless, the critical issue he is bringing to the table is far from being contentious. It is the very same issue that many international humanitarian organizations, national experts and individuals of bare common sense have been advocating for many decades. I am with the PM of Ethiopia on this burning issue as he debates this particular African dilemma. All serious and sensible Africans and other good willed people around the world should rally around his plea before world leaders in Copenhagen.

I am not saying this as unconcerned by-stander. I opposed the massacre of trees for the European market consumption in 1980’s in Mozambique where I worked as a forestry engineer. The government needed ‘foreign currency’ badly to feed its newly independent nation. Africans shipped raw logs of black ebony to Europe and Japan. Since the country could not afford reforestation, it only became just a little more than a talk rather than an alternative activity.
As head of regional forestry and wildlife office, I had fought against the communist military government’s land policy in 1970s, which contributed to further depletion of the virgin forest of Ethiopia. We managed to plant 11 million trees in the central region of Ethiopia before I moved to Mozambique.

Later, I helped in some forestry development projects in Southern Africa. One of the reasons I abandoned the profession was because of such onslaughts on the natural resources of Africa without due consideration to the consequences or future restoration.
Now about 30 years later, I am still weeping with the world over the spilt milk. While I praise the cooperation of the Prime Minister of Denmark, I challenge the resolute apathy of the culprits. They do not seem to be interested to rescue Africa after years of their unchecked exploitation. As Dr. Martin Luther King said, ” Injustice anywhere is injustice everywhere (paraphrased)”. I can therefore, only agree with our late Emperor Haile Selassie, “God and history will judge” in due season if Africans mismanage God’s resources.

As a side note of caution, let me say to my fellow global environmental activists that no amount of monetary compensation can fully recover the loss. Such environmental iniquity and irresponsible stewardship should humble them before the enlightened world. Since monetary award to corrupt African governments will only aggravate the situation, I would suggest that an international committee of legal, environmental and ethical experts be formed to devise a strategy to recoup the damage, manage and conserve the environment, fund reforestation of indigenous species, pay for training, research, sustainability and development.
Given the gravity of the climate change due mainly to forest depletion, I am also calling on all Africans and friends of Africa worldwide, not to polarize or jeopardize the forum but to agree in principle and policy on this one solitary issue, i.e., to stand for Africa’s environmental justice beyond all other divisive differences.
May this message win the hearts and heads of the dignitaries and conferees of Copenhagen Convention!
Rev. Tegga Lendado, PhD.
O.A.S.I.S of American Solutions for Solutions
Atlanta, USA.

http://ecadforum.com/blog/?p=2948

LISTE DES ACCORDS MULTILATERAUX DANS LE DOMAINE DE L’ENVIRONNEMENT

LISTE DES ACCORDS MULTILATERAUX DANS LE DOMAINE DE L’ENVIRONNEMENT

Il existe plus de 500 traités et autres accords internationaux relatifs à l’environnement,
dont 300 environ ont un caractère régional. L’inventaire de ces accords multilatéraux dans le
domaine de la protection de l’environnement témoigne que ce thème est devenu majeur dans
le cadre des relations internationales.

Pour sa part, la France joue dans ce contexte un rôle actif, tant par le nombre élevé des
accords auxquels elle est Partie, que par les efforts qu’elle accomplit sur les plans bilatéral et
multilatéral pour encourager leur mise en oeuvre par ses partenaires du Sud. Au vu de la
multiplication des accords internationaux et des enceintes de négociation, elle a lancé une
réflexion sur la gouvernance mondiale de l’environnement ainsi qu’une initiative sur la
création d’une organisation des Nations unies pour l’Environnement.

http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/IMG/pdf/ratifications.pdf


Les problèmes environnementaux majeurs de l’Afrique : l’appauvrissement de la biodiversité
PRESENTATION SOMMAIRE DE L’AFRIQUE
L’Afrique est un vaste continent de 29.630.000 km2 qui compte près de 860 millions d’habitants.

Elle est traversée par l’équateur et se situe surtout dans la zone intertropicale.
Elle est reliée à l’Asie par l’isthme de Suez, et séparée de l’Europe par le détroit de Gibraltar, elle s’étend entre le 37e degré de latitude nord et le 35e degré de latitude sud.
L’Afrique comprend de vastes cuvettes : Niger, Tchad, Zaïre, Kalahari.
Les principales montagnes sont : Atlas (Maghreb), Hoggar, Tibesti, Massif éthiopien, Monts du Drakensberg.

La région du rift (à l’Est) est un gigantesque fossé tectonique avec des volcans (Kilimandjaro, point culminant à 5895 m) et des lacs (Malawi, Tanganyika, Victoria).
L’Afrique possède le plus grand désert du monde : le Sahara (3 millions de Km2).
Les espaces désertiques couvrent une surface considérable : un tiers du continent.
Les grands fleuves sont : Nil, Zaïre (Congo),Niger, Sénégal et Zambèze. Ils prennent leur source en Afrique humide.
http://www.ahjucaf.org/spip.php?article69


Mise en œuvre des principes des conventions environnementales - expérience de la Mauritanie - Hervé GOGO, Oumar FALL, Florent Dirk THIES, Brahim SALL

La République Islamique de Mauritanie a ratifié la Convention de Lutte Contre la Désertification (CCD) et la Convention sur la Diversité Biologique (CDB) mais aussi d’autres conventions environnementales non moins importantes. En phase de mise en œuvre, ces conventions constituent actuellement l’ossature de la politique Mauritanienne en matière de gestion des ressources naturelles et de protection de l’environnement en vue d’un développement économique durable.

Ces conventions environnementales ont un objectif similaire puisque dans les zones arides et semi-arides, par exemple, la diversité biologique est directement liée à la désertification, tandis que la lutte contre la désertification invite à une utilisation durable des ressources naturelles.
Leur mise en oeuvre est d’autant plus importante que les ressources naturelles constituent dans leur diversité la toile de fond de l’économie du pays et que les bénéfices attendus de cette mise en oeuvre s’adressent aux domaines politique et juridique comme au domaine socioéconomique et à la Stratégie de Lutte Contre la Pauvreté.
Certains principes et/ou orientations énoncés dans les conventions environnementales méritent une attention particulière car ils véhiculent des énoncés révélateurs et moteurs pour amorcer le changement au niveau des conditions cadres et cela à différents niveaux:

http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/y5667f/y5667f08.htm#TopOfPage


Module de formation sur les accords internationaux sur les ressources phytogénétiques - Oscar EYOG MATIK (Coordonnateur IPGRI du Programme SAFORGEN)

D’énormes changements sont intervenus depuis 15 ans dans les politiques et législations internationales sur les ressources phytogénétiques (RPG). Ce qui a engendré des changements dans la manière de travailler des gestionnaires de ces ressources. Des missions de collecte qui autrefois se faisaient sans trop de formalités, exigent aujourd’hui des collecteurs une bonne connaissance de l’environnement juridique qui entoure ces ressources. La connaissance de tout cet arsenal juridique nécessite une formation du gestionnaire. Le module de formation qui est l’objet de cette présentation au cours de l’atelier de Bamako, a été développé par l’Institut International des Ressources Phytogénétiques (IPGRI) pour répondre à cette préoccupation des pays. Le module est organisé sous la forme d’un séminaire qui se déroule sur 5 jours. Il se compose d’un certain nombre de matériels de formation tels que les questions que le formateur peut poser, les documents à multiplier pour distribution aux participants, les cours sous forme de diapositives, etc. La plupart des traités et conventions internationaux tels que CDB, UPOV, TRIPS, Traité FAO, etc. y sont présentés. Dans le cadre de cet atelier, nous avons insisté sur le Traité FAO, nouvel instrument juridique qui n’est pas encore suffisamment vulgarisé. Le Traité comporte des innovations telles que le système multilatéral (SYM), l’accès facilité aux ressources, l’accord de transfert de matériel (ATM), le partage des bénéfices et les droits des agriculteurs. Une comparaison sur ces thèmes avec la CDB et la loi modèle de l’Union Africaine a été faite, ainsi qu’une présentation des autres activités sur les politiques et législations de l’IPGRI en Afrique au Sud du Sahara.

http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/y5667f/y5667f0b.htm#TopOfPage

Droit de l'environnement en Afrique de l'Ouest

Aspects contemporains du droit de l'environnement en Afrique de l'ouest et centrale

http://www.graf-bf.org/IMG/pdf/Droits_de_l_environnement.pdf


Le droit de l’environnement marin et côtier en Afrique occidentale : cas de cinq pays francophones
L’Afrique occidentale est une sous- région dont l’environnement marin et côtier regorge de richesses naturelles inestimables. Ces milieux subissent depuis des décennies les pires dégradations telles que la surexploitation des ressources biologiques et abiotiques, la pollution marine et côtière, l’érosion côtière, etc. Afin de remédier aux problèmes liés à la dégradation du milieu marin et des zones côtières, les pays de la région de l’Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre, parmi lesquels figurent les cinqpays ciblés dans le cadre de cette étude (le Bénin, la Côte d’Ivoire, la Guinée, le Sénégal et le Togo), se sont regroupés pour adopter la Convention relative à la coopération en matière de protection et de mise en valeur du milieu marin et des zones côtières et le Protocole relatif à la coopération en matière de lutte contre la pollution en cas de situation critique, tous deux adoptés à Abidjan en Côte d’Ivoire le 23 mars 1981 et entrés en vigueur le 5 août 1984. Le cadre juridique relatif à la protection et à la gestion de l’environnement marin et côtier mis en place aussi bien dans le contexte régional que national, quoique pertinent, présente des défaillances. Les difficultés recensées sont principalement dues à la complexité de la mise en oeuvre des mesures juridiques. Il existe en effet dans ces pays un réel problème lié à l’effectivité du droit de l’environnement marin et côtier. Parmi les approches de solution possibles à ce problème figure la réforme du système juridique en vigueur tant sur le plan régional que national, qui intègre les éléments essentiels tendant à une véritable protection et une gestion du milieu marin et des zones côtières dans cette région.
http://www.unilim.fr/theses/2006/droit/2006limo0513/assemboni_a.pdf



TENDANCES DE DROIT FORESTIER. EN AFRIQUE FRANCOPHONE, HISPANOPHONE

http://www.fao.org/legal/prs-ol/lpo28f.pdf


Le droit international applicable à la faune et aux aires protégées en Afrique

http://www.fao.org/Legal/prs-ol/lpo20.pdf



La Mise en Oeuvre du Droit International de l’Environnement en Afrique de l’Ouest, France, 2001
http://www.unitar.org/ilp/node/109


Le Droit international est traditionnellement défini comme le domaine du droit qui régit les relations et les actions des Etats souverains au sein du système légal international. Depuis les années 70, le droit international de l’environnement, qui traite principalement des enjeux environnementaux, s’est développé en tant que composante du droit international et s’applique à travers des mécanismes contraignants (hard law) et non contraignants (soft law). Les premiers prennent forme des accords juridiquement contraignants, qui peut être mis en œuvre par un organisme national ou international, alors que les règles et principes non contraignants qui visent à assurer le respect par les Etats de certaines normes et standards comportementaux constituent les mécanismes non contraignants. La mise en œuvre adéquate du droit international de l’environnement est primordiale pour s’assurer que les cadres et instruments législatifs atteignent leurs objectifs.
L’Atelier Régional de Formation sur la Mise en Œuvre du Droit International de l’Environnement en Afrique de l’Ouest s’est tenu du 1er au 5 octobre 2001. Vingt-cinq participants représentant les Ministères de l’Environnement et les Universités de 8 pays africains ont pris part à l’Atelier.

• Atelier de formation a l application du droit international de l’environnemen t pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest France 2001-1 (PDF - 80.5 ko)
http://www.unitar.org/ilp/sites/unitar.org.ilp/files/pdf/Atelier_de_formation_a_l_application_du_droit_international_de_l_environnemen_t_pour_l_Afrique_de_l_Ouest_France_2001-1-2.pdf

Africa Environmental Organizations

List of Environmental Organizations and
Environmental Government Agencies in Africa



AFRICA ANIMAL PROTECTION NETWORK (Africa APN) - www.africaanimal.org


AFRICA, GREENPEACE INTERNATIONAL - www.greenpeace.org/international/campaigns/forests/africa/


AFRICA AND MADAGASCAR, CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL - www.conservation.org/explore/africa_madagascar/Pages/overview.aspx


AFRICA NETWORK FOR ANIMAL WELFARE (ANAW) [Kenya] - http://www.anaw.org/


AFRICA, WILDLIFE CONSERVATION SOCIETY - www.wcs.org/where-we-work/africa.aspx


AFRICAN ASSOCIATION OF ZOOS & AQUARIA (PAAZAB) - http://www.paazab.com/


AFRICAN BIODIVERSITY NETWORK (ABN) - http://www.africanbiodiversity.org/


AFRICAN BIRD CLUB - http://www.africanbirdclub.org/


AFRICAN CENTRE FOR TECHNOLOGY STUDIES (ACTS) [Kenya] - http://www.acts.or.ke/


AFRICAN CIVIL SOCIETY NETWORK ON WATER AND SANITATION (ANEW) - www.anewafrica.net

AFRICAN CONSERVATION CENTRE (ACC) [Kenya] - http://www.conservationafrica.org/


AFRICAN CONSERVATION FOUNDATION (ACT) - http://www.africanconservation.org/


AFRICAN ELEPHANT PROGRAM, U.S. FISH & WILDLIFE SERVICE - www.fws.gov/international/DIC/species/afe/african_elephant.html


AFRICAN ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION NETWORK (AEIN) - www.necz.org.zm/aein/
and
www.unep.org/dewa/africa/aeoprocess/aein/aein.asp


AFRICAN FUND FOR ENDANGERED WILDLIFE (AFEW) - www.gcci.org/afew/afew.html


AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT (AJEAM/RAGEE) - http://www.ajeam-ragee.org/


AFRICAN NETWORK OF ENVIRONMENTAL JOURNALISTS (ANEJ) - www.unep.org/roa/Projects_Programmes/African_Network_Environmental_Journalists/index.asp


AFRICAN PREDATOR CONSERVATION RESEARCH ORGANIZATION (APCRO) - http://www.apcro.org/


AFRICAN WATER ISSUES RESEARCH UNIT (AWIRU), UNIVERISITY OF PRETORIA - http://www.awiru.co.za/


AFRICAN WILD DOG CONSERVANCY (AWD Conservancy) - http://www.awdconservancy.org/


AFRICAN WIND ENERGY ASSOCIATION (AfriWEA) - http://www.afriwea.org/


AFRICAN WILDLIFE FOUNDATION (AWF) - http://www.awf.org/


AFRICAT FOUNDATION [Namibia] - http://www.africat.org/


AFRICA2020.COM, ENVIRONMENT - www.mathaba.net/africa2020/environment


AFRI-LEO FOUNDATION INTERNATIONAL, NAMIBIA - http://www.afrileo-foundation.org/


AFRITRUST - http://www.afritrust.com/


ALLAFRICA.COM, ENVIRONMENT – TOP NEWS - http://allafrica.com/environment


ANIMAL RIGHTS AFRICA [South Africa] - http://www.animalrightsafrica.org/


APE ACTION AFRICA [Cameroon] - http://www.apeactionafrica.org/


BUDONGO CONSERVATION FIELD STATION (BCFS) [Uganda] - http://www.budongo.org/


CENTER FOR EDUCATION, RESEARCH AND CONSERVATION OF PRIMATES AND NATURE (CERCOPAN) [Nigeria] -
http://www.cercopan.org/


CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT (CED) [Cameroon] - http://www.cedcameroun.org/


CENTRE FOR AFRICAN FAMILY STUDIES (CAFS) [Kenya] - http://www.cafs.org/


CHEETAH CONSERVATION FUND (CCF) [Namibia] - http://www.cheetah.org/


CHIMFUNSHI WILDLIFE ORPHANAGE [Zambia] - http://www.chimfunshi.org.za/


CHIMPANZEE REHABILITATION TRUST (CRT) [Gambia] - http://www.chimprehab.com/


CHIMPANZEE SANCTUARY & WILDLIFE CONSERVATION TRUST (CSWCT) [Uganda] - http://www.ngambaisland.org/


CHIPANGALI WILDLIFE ORPHANAGE [Zimbabwe] - http://www.chipangali.com/


THE DAVID SHELDRICK WILDLIFE TRUST [Kenya] - http://www.sheldrickwildlifetrust.org/


DIAN FOSSEY GORILLA FUND INTERNATIONAL (DFGFI) - http://www.gorillafund.org/


EARTHLIFE AFRICA (ELA) - http://www.earthlife.org.za/


EARTHWIRE AFRICA - www.earthwire.org/africa/


EAST AFRICAN WILDLIFE SOCIETY (EAWLS) - http://www.eawildlife.org/


EASTERN AFRICA ENVIRONMENTAL NETWORK (EAEN) - www.interconnection.org/eaen/


ECO–ETHICS INTERNATIONAL – KENYA (EEI – Kenya) - http://www.ecoethics-kenya.org/


ENDANGERED WILDLIFE TRUST (EWT) [South Africa] - http://www.ewt.org.za/


ENVIROCARE [Tanzania] - http://www.envirocaretz.com/


ENVIRONMENT LAISON CENTER INTERNATIONAL (ELCI) - http://www.elci.org/


ENVIRONMENTAL LAW INSTITUTE, AFRICA PROGRAM - www.eli.org/Program_Areas/africa.cfm


ENVIRONMENTAL RIGHTS ACTION (ERA), FRIENDS OF THE EARTH, NIGERIA - http://www.eraction.org/


FARMER’S CENTER OF INITIATIVES AND RESEARCH FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (CIRPED) [Senegal] - www.interconnection.org/cirped/


FRIENDS OF THE EARTH SIERRA LEONE (FOESL) - www.onesky.ca/foesl/


FRIENDS OF LAKE VICTORIA (OSIENALA) - http://www.osienala.org/


THE GALLMANN AFRICA CONSERVANCY - http://www.gallmannkenya.org/


GREEN AFRICA FOUNDATION (GAF) [Kenya] - http://www.greenafricafoundation.org/


GRASSLAND SOCIETY OF SOUTHERN AFRICA (GSSA) - http://www.gssa.co.za/


GREAT APES SURVIVAL PARTNERSHIP (GRASP) [Kenya] - www.unep.org/grasp/


GREEN BELT MOVEMENT (GBM) [Kenya] - http://www.greenbeltmovement.org/


GROUNDWORK [South Africa] - http://www.groundwork.org.za/


HOMELESS ANIMALS PROTECTION SOCIETY (HAPS) [Ethiopia] - http://www.haps-eth.org.et/


INFORSE – AFRICA, INTERNATIONAL NETWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY - www.inforse.org/africa/


INTERNATIONAL OCEAN INSTITUTE – SOUTHERN AFRICA - http://www.ioisa.org.za/


IUCN, BOTSWANA COUNTRY OFFICE - http://www.iucnbot.bw/


KENYA BIRDING - http://www.kenyabirding.org/


KENYA SOCIETY FOR THE PROTECTION & CARE OF ANIMALS (KSPCA) - http://www.kspca-kenya.org/


LES AMIS DE LA TERRE – TOGO (ADT-Togo) - http://www.amiterre.tg/


LIVING WITH ELEPHANTS FOUNDATION [Botswana] - http://www.livingwithelephants.org/


NAMIBIA NATURE FOUNDATION - http://www.nnf.org.na/


NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL ENVIRONMENTALISTS IN UGANDA (NAPE Uganda) - http://www.nape.or.ug/


NATIONAL COUNCIL OF SPCAs (NSPCA) [South Africa] - http://www.nspca.co.za/


NATURE KENYA – THE EAST AFRICA NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY - http://www.naturekenya.org/


NATURE SEYCHELLES - http://www.natureseychelles.org/


NIGER DELTA FUND INITIATIVE (NDFI), EARTH RIGHTS INSTITUTE - www.earthrights.net/nigeria/


PADELIA – PARTNERSHIP FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND INSTITUTIONS IN AFRICA, UN ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME - www.unep.org/Padelia/


PAN AFRICAN SANCTUARY ALLIANCE (PASA) - http://www.pasaprimates.org/


PLANTZAFRICA.COM - http://www.plantzafrica.com/


RHINO ARK [Kenya] - http://www.rhinoark.org/


RHINO FUND UGANDA (RFU) - http://www.rhinofund.org/


SAVE EARTH NIGERIA (SEN) - http://www.senigus.interconnection.org/


SAVE THE ELEPHANTS [Kenya] - http://www.savetheelephants.org/


SOUTHERN AFRICA ENVIRONMENT PROJECT - http://www.saep.org/


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE (SDI) [Liberia] - http://www.sdiliberia.org/


SUSTAINABLE ENERGY AFRICA (SEA) - http://www.sustainable.org.za/


SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SOCIETY OF SOUTHERN AFRICA (SESSA) - http://www.sessa.org.za/


TACUGAMA CHIMPANZI SANCTUARY [Sierra Leone] - http://www.tacugama.com/


TUSK - http://www.tusk.org/


UGANDA WILDLIFE EDUCATION CENTRE (UWEC) - http://www.uweczoo.org/


UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME (UNEP) [Kenya] - http://www.unep.org/


UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME (UNEP), REGIONAL OFFICE FOR AFRICA (ROA) - www.unep.org/roa/


WASTES MANAGEMENT SOCIETY OF NIGERIA (WAMASON) - http://www.wamason.org/


WILDLANDS CONSERVATION TRUST [South Africa] - http://www.wildlands.co.za/


WILDLIFE DIRECT - http://wildlifedirect.org/


WILDLIFE AND ENVIRONMENT SOCIETY OF SOUTH AFRICA (WESSA) - http://www.wildlifesociety.org.za/


WILDLIFE & ENVIRONMENT ZIMBABWE (WEZ) - http://www.zimwild.org/


WILDLIFE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIETY OF MALAWI - http://www.wildlifemalawi.org/


WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE (ICRAF) - http://www.worldagroforestry.org/


WWF SOUTH AFRICA - http://www.panda.org.za/


WWF – AFRICA & MADAGASCAR - www.worldwildlife.org/wildplaces/africa.cfm


YONGE NAWE ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION GROUP [Swaziland] - http://www.yongenawe.com/


YOUTH FOR CONSERVATION (YfC) [Kenya] - http://www.youthforconservation.org/


ZIMBABWE CONSERVATION TASK FORCE (ZCTF) - http://zctf.net or http://www.zctf.mweb.co.zw/


THE ZAMBEZI SOCIETY - http://www.zamsoc.org/






Government Environmental & Conservation Agencies



Directory of National Government Environmental Agencies

AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST, DIRECTORY OF WEB SITES OF ENVIRONMENTAL AGENCIES OF THE WORLD, INTERNATIONAL NETWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT (INECE) - www.inece.org/links_pages/onlineresourcesEnvironmentalagencies.html#africa



Algeria

NATIONAL OFFICE OF METEOROLOGY - http://www.meteo.dz/



Ascension Island
[Dependency of Saint Helena and Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom]

ASCENSION CONSERVATION - www.ascensionconservation.org.ac/index.htm



Benin

NATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE - http://www.meteo-benin.net/



Botswana

BOTSWANA DEPARTMENT OF METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES (DMS) - www.mewt.gov.bw/DMS/index.php
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS (DEA) - http://www.envirobotswana.gov.bw/

DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY AND RANGE RESOURCES (DFRR) - www.mewt.gov.bw/DFRR/index.php

DEPARTMENT OF WASTE MANAGEMENT & POLLUTION CONTROL (DWMPC) - www.mewt.gov.bw/DWMPC/index.php

DEPARTMENT OF WILDLIFE & NATIONAL PARKS (DWNP) - www.mewt.gov.bw/DWNP/index.php

MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT, WILDLIGE AND TOURISM (MEWT) - http://www.mewt.gov.bw/



Cameroon

NATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL DIRECTORATE (DMN) - http://www.meteo-cameroon.net/



Congo

NATIONAL METEOROLOGY DIRECTORATE - http://www.meteo-congo-brazza.net/



Democratic Republic of the Congo

NATIONAL AGENCY OF METEOROLOGY AND TELEDETECTION BY SATELLITE (METTELSAT) -
http://www.meteo-congo-kinshasa.net/



Egypt

English Language Home Page of Primary Environmental Agency:
EGYPTIAN ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS AGENCY (EEAA), MINISTRY OF STATE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS - www.eeaa.gov.eg/English/main/about.asp


EGYPTIAN ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS AGENCY (EEAA), MINISTRY OF STATE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS - http://www.eeaa.gov.eg/

EGYPTIAN METEOROLOGICAL AUTHORITY (EMA) - http://nwp.gov.eg/

MINISTRY OF WATER RESOURCES AND IRRIGATION - http://www.mwri.gov.eg/

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND FISHERIES (NIOF) - http://www.niof.sci.eg/

NATIONAL WATER RESEARCH CENTER (NWRC) - http://www.nwrc.gov.eg/



Ethiopia

AGRICULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION DEPARTMENT, THE ETHIOPIAN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COMMISSION (ESTC) - www.telecom.net.et/~estc/departments/agriculture.htm

CLEANER PRODUCTION CENTRE (CPC), ESTC - www.telecom.net.et/~estc/cpc.htm

DEPARTMENT OF MINES, WATER & ENERGY, ESTC - www.telecom.net.et/~estc/departments/water.htm

DISASTER PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS COMMISSION (DPPC) - http://www.dppc.gov.et/

ETHIOPIAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AUTHORITY (EPA) - www.epa.gov.et/EPAHome.htm
ETHIOPIAN INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH (EIAR) - http://www.eiar.gov.et/

ETHIOPIAN MAPPING AUTHORITY - www.telecom.net.et/~ema/

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ETHIOPIA - http://geoinfo.uneca.org/geoinfo/ethiopia/gse.html

NATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES AGENCY - http://geoinfo.uneca.org/geoinfo/ethiopia/nmsa.html

NATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION AUTHORITY (NRPA), ESTC - www.telecom.net.et/~estc/CentresAuth/nrpa.htm



Gabon

METEO GABON - http://www.meteo-gabon.net/

Ghana

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) - http://www.epa.gov.gh/



Guinea

NATIONAL DIRECTORATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT - www.mirinet.com/gn_env



Kenya

KENYA FORESTRY RESEARCH INSTITUTE (KEFRI) - http://www.kefri.org/

KENYA FOREST SERVICE (KFS) - http://www.kenyaforestservice.org/

KENYA MARINE AND FISHERIES RESEARCH INSITUTE (KMFRI) - http://www.kmfri.co.ke/

KENYA METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT - http://www.meteo.go.ke/

KENYA WILDLIFE SERVICE (KWS) - http://www.kws.org/

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE - http://www.kilimo.go.ke/

MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND MINERAL RESOURCES (MEMR) - http://www.environment.go.ke/

MINISTRY OF LANDS AND SETTLEMENT - http://www.ardhi.go.ke/

MINISTRY OF WATER AND IRRIGATION - http://www.water.go.ke/

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY (NEMA) - http://www.nema.go.ke/



Lesotho

DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT - www.mtec.gov.ls/index.php?
option=com_content&task=view&id=55&Itemid=77


LESOTHO METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE (LMS) - http://www.lesmet.org.ls/

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY - www.lesotho.gov.ls/agric

MINISTRY OF FORESTRY AND LAND RECLAMATION - www.lesotho.gov.ls/forestry

MINISTRY OF TOURISM, ENVIRONMENT AND CULTURE - http://www.mtec.gov.ls/



Libya

GENERAL PEOPLES COMMITTEE FOR HEALTH & ENVIRONMENT - http://www.health.gov.ly/

LIBYAN NATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL CENTER - http://www.lnmc.ly/



Madagascar

MINISTERE DE L’AGRICULTURE, DE L’ELEVAGE ET DE LA PECHE (MAEP) - http://www.maep.gov.mg/

MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTS (MEF) - http://www.meeft.gov.mg/

MINISTRY OF WATER - http://www.mineau.gov.mg/



Malawi

DEPARTMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES - http://www.metmalawi.com/



Mali

OBSERVATOIRE DU MARCHE AGRICOLE - http://www.oma.gov.ml/



Mauritius

DEMOGRAPHY / EVALUATION UNIT - www.gov.mu/portal/site/evalSite

MAURITIUS METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES (MMS) - http://metservice.intnet.mu/

MINISTRY OF AGRO INDUSTRY, FOOD PRODUCTION AND SECURITY - www.gov.mu/portal/site/MOASite

MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT UNIT - www.gov.mu/portal/site/menvsite

Additional web site address of the same site - http://environment.gov.mu/

MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND QUALITY OF LIFE - www.gov.mu/portal/site/mohsite

MINISTRY OF HOUSING & LANDS - www.gov.mu/portal/site/housing

MINISTRY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AND PUBLIC UTILITIES - www.gov.mu/portal/site/mpusite

WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY - http://wma.gov.mu/



Morocco

DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT - http://www.minenv.gov.ma/

NATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL DIRECTORATE - http://www.marocmeteo.ma/

NATIONAL OFFICE OF POTABLE WATER (ONEP) - http://www.onep.org.ma/



Mozambique

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF METEOROLOGY - http://www.inam.gov.mz/



Namibia

MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND TOURISM (MET) - http://www.met.gov.na/

NAMIBIA METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE - http://www.meteona.com/



Niger

DIRECTION DE LA METEOROLOGIE NATIONALE DU NIGER - http://www.meteo-niger.net/



Nigeria

NATIONAL AGENCY FOR FOOD, DRUG ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL - http://www.nafdacnigeria.org/

NATIONAL POPULATION COMMISSION (NPC) - http://www.population.gov.ng/



Rwanda

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL RESOURCES (MINAGRI) - http://www.minagri.gov.rw/

NATIONAL AIDS CONTROL COMMISSION (CNLS) - http://www.cnls.gov.rw/

RWANDA ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY (REMA) - http://www.rema.gov.rw/



Saint Helena
[Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom]

HERITAGE, TOURISM OFFICIAL WEBSITE, GOVERNMENT OF ST. HELENA - www.discoveroursecret.co.sh/pages/heritage.html

NATURE, TOURISM OFFICIAL WEBSITE, GOVERNMENT OF ST. HELENA - www.discoveroursecret.co.sh/pages/nature.html

ST. HELENA NATIONAL TRUST - http://www.nationaltrust.org.sh/



Senegal

MINISTERE DE L’ENVIRONNEMENT ET DE LA PROTECTION DE LA NATURE - http://www.environnement.gouv.sn/

NATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL DIRECTORATE - http://www.meteo-senegal.net/



Seychelles

DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT - www.virtualseychelles.sc/gover/menr-de.htm

MINISTRY OF LAND USE AND HABITAT - www.virtualseychelles.sc/gover/mluh.htm

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES - www.virtualseychelles.sc/gover/menr-dnr.htm

SEYCHELLES CENTRE FOR MARINE RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY – MARINE PARKS

AUTHORITY (SCMRT-MPA) - http://www.scmrt-mpa.sc/

SEYCHELLES FISHING AUTHORITY (SFA) - www.virtualseychelles.sc/gover/para_sfa.htm

SEYCHELLES METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES - www.pps.gov.sc/meteo/



Sierra Leone

ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION, MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND SANITATION - www.health.sl/drwebsite/publish/environsanitation.shtml



South Africa

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (ARC) - http://www.arc.agric.za/

COUNCIL FOR GEOSCIENCE - http://www.geoscience.org.za/

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY AND FISHERIES - http://www.daff.gov.za/

DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS - http://www.environment.gov.za/

DEPARTMENT OF WATER AFFAIRS (DWAF) - http://www.dwaf.gov.za/

NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY INSTITUTE (SANBI) - http://www.nbi.co.za/

NATIONAL DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (DoA) - http://www.nda.agric.za/

NATIONAL NUCLEAR REGULATOR (NNR) - http://www.nnr.co.za/

PLANTZAFRICA.COM - http://www.plantzafrica.com/

SOUTH AFRICAN BIODIVERSITY INFORMATION FACILITY (SABIF) - http://www.sabif.ac.za/

SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL ANTARCTIC PROGRAM (SANAP) - http://home.intekom.com/sanae

SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY INSTITUTE (SANBI) - http://www.nbi.ac.za/

SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL PARKS (SANParks) - http://www.sanparks.org/

SOUTH AFRICAN WEATHER SERVICE - http://www.weathersa.co.za/

WATER RESEARCH COMMISSION (WRC) - http://www.wrc.org.za/



Sudan

MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT, WILDLIFE CONSERVATION & TOURISM, AUTONOMOUS GOVERNMENT OF SOUTHERN SUDAN - http://www.mewctgoss.org/

SUDAN METEOROLOGICAL AUTHORITY - http://www.ersad.gov.sd/



Swaziland

SWAZILAND ENVIRONMENT AUTHORITY (SEA) - http://www.environment.gov.sz/

SWAZILAND METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE - http://www.swazimet.gov.sz/

SWAZILAND NATIONAL TRUST COMMISSION - www.sntc.org.sz/intro.html



Tanzania

AGRICULTURE, UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA - www.tanzania.go.tz/agriculturef.html

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE & FOOD SECURITY - www.tanzania.go.tz/agriculture.htm

MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES & TOURISM - www.tanzania.go.tz/natural.htm

MINISTRY OF WATER & LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT - www.tanzania.go.tz/water.htm

NATURAL RESOURCES, UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA - www.tanzania.go.tz/naturalresources.html

TANZANIA FOOD AND NUTRITION CENTRE (TFNC) - www.tanzania.go.tz/tfnc.html

TANZANIA METEOROLOGICAL AGENCY - http://www.meteo.go.tz/

TANZANIA NATIONAL PARKS - http://www.tanzaniaparks.com/

WATER, UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA - www.tanzania.go.tz/waterf.html



Togo

SERVICE DE LA METEOROLOGIE NATIONALE DU TOGO - http://www.meteo-togo.net/



Tristan da Cunha
[Dependency of Saint Helena and Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom]

A TRISTAN ISLANDS TOUR, THE TRISTAN DA CUNHA WEBSITE - www.tristandc.com/tour.php

CONSERVATION NEWS, THE TRISTAN DA CUNHA WEBSITE - www.tristandc.com/newsconservation.php

TRISTAN DA CUNHA [not a government agency] - www.sthelena.se/tristan/tristan.htm

WILDLIFE AND CONSERVATION, THE TRISTAN DA CUNHA WEBSITE - www.tristandc.com/wildlife.php



Tunisia

MINISTERE DE L’AGRICULTURE ET DES RESSOURCES HYDRAULIGUES - www.ministeres.tn/html/ministeres/agriculture.html

MINISTERE DE L’ENVIRONNEMENT ET LE DEVELOPPEMENT DURABLE - http://www.environnement.nat.tn/

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF METEOROLOGY - http://www.meteo.tn/

THE NATIONAL SANITATION UTILITY (ONAS) - http://www.onas.nat.tn/



Uganda

DEPARTMENT OF METEOROLOGY - http://www.meteo-uganda.net/

MINISTRY OF WATER AND ENVIRONMENT - http://www.mwe.go.ug/

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY (NEMA) - http://www.nemaug.org/

UGANDA WILDLIFE AUTHORITY (UWA) - www.ugandawildlife.org or http://www.uwa.or.ug/



Zambia

ENVIRONMENTAL COUNCIL OF ZAMBIA (ECZ) - http://www.necz.org.zm/

ZAMBIA AGRICULTURE RESEARCH INSTITUTE (ZARI) - http://www.zari.gov.zm/

ZAMBIA DEPARTMENT OF METEOROLOGY - www.zamnet.zm/siteindex/Links/weather.html



Zimbabwe

DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES - www.water.gov.zw/Departs/water.htm

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE - http://www.moa.gov.zw/

MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND TOURISM - http://www.met.gov.zw/

MINISTRY OF STATE FOR WATER RESOURCES AND INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT - http://www.water.gov.zw/

ZIMBABWE NATIONAL WATER AUTHORITY (ZINWA) - http://www.zinwa.co.zw/

ZIMBABWE PARKS AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY - http://www.zimparks.com/

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